By no later than the 1920s emerging atomic science had already spawned the idea of using radioactive heat emitted by certain minerals, and substances extracted from them, to run electric power plants. Atomic theory – the “classic Einstein theory of E = mc(2)” – says that matter and energy are interchangeable, and tiny amounts of matter contain huge amounts of energy. This is claimed to be released by fission, and not by chemical, electrical or electromagnetic conversion or transformation.
Basic scientific problems remained, and still remain. The destructibility of mass should be well demonstrated. The loss of mass should yield amounts of heat energy comparable to those predicted by Einstein’s equation, very notably. Major issues for example include the exact weights of materials said or claimed to be transformed, and the chemical, electrical, electromagnetic or radioactive behavior of, for example, heavier atomic particles like the proton and boson (named for Bose). Scientific debate and controversy on this subject has never ceased.
Basically, if it is not possible to exactly measure the weight of these particles, their conversion by fission into radiation energy has doubt attached to it. Natural processes such as spallation in the atmosphere (nuclear transformation of for example carbon into nitrogen and oxygen) are due to cosmic-source gamma radiation. They are quantum mechanical effects, not fission effects. There is no “critical mass”. They are nothing to do with Newtonian-type “straight line” collision of particles, which is the only conceptual framework used in atomic science to supposedly cause fission and produce “mass gains and losses”.
The Fermi Experiment
US war officials took Enrico Fermi’s fission theory of shortly before 1941 seriously. Fermi had been able to release the nuclear energy of uranium through a sustained chain reaction, producing significant amounts of gamma radiation, but his “secret experiment” was not an experiment to prove that mass had been converted into heat energy. He proved that both heat energy and gamma radiation can be produced, and its energy could be transformed to other forms of energy. How he produced this gamma radiation (using large amounts of electrical energy and chemical reagents) was another subject. Both of the two US nuclear weapons dropped on Japan in 1945 were gamma radiation emitting. Their blast and incendiary effects were due to the nature of the materials used, especially uranium and the materials used in the very large bomb casings and claddings.
The Supreme War Council of Japan at first refused to surrender to the USA but soon after that the Emperor of Japan unconditionally surrendered saying that “ in view of this new type of weapon, Japan is now powerless to continue the war”.
If you start thinking about Little Boy as what it really was, a stage prop, and not a bomb, the photographs will start making more sense. This is a look at the photographs from the National Archive collection number RG-77-BT that show the Fat Man bomb being loaded into the loading pit at Tinian. These are all United States government photographs and have no copyright. They can all be viewed at http://www.alternatewars.com/Bomb_Loadi ... _Guide.htm. The originals are 4 by 5 inch contact prints, according to the personnel at the National Archives. They say they do not have the original negatives. In these photos, you can look for clues as to how much Fat Man weighed. Officially, it was 10,200 pounds, or five ton. Look at these photographs and decide for yourself, based upon your own experiences, if you think this is a five ton load.
Notice the antenna towards the front of the bomb. The antenna is silvery colored, probably aluminum. It has one loop with two straight rods on each side of the loop. It sets on a rectangle which is also silvery colored. You should be able to see two sets on each model. Presumably, there's another pair behind the model which are hidden from view. Look at the lengths and spacing of the elements. This is important in an antenna because it determines the frequency and pattern. This antenna that is shown on these models had a patent: 2452073 Compare the relative length and spacing of the antenna on the models with that of the drawings from the patent, shown below.
Patent #2452073: http://www.google.com/patents/about?id=VotOAAAAEBAJ
As is evident in reading the patent, and looking at the diagrams, the antenna had two parts, or halves, a right hand and a left hand part. One half was to be put on one side of the vertical stabilizer of the plane, and the other half was on the other side. The antenna was immune to variation in fin thickness, but note that they state, "within practical limits". A fin with a thickness of 28 inches isn't very practical. Since this antenna was meant to operate in pairs, three APS-13 units would have needed three pairs, and four APS-13 units would have needed four pairs. There are only two pairs, at most, shown on pictures of Little Boy. That would only be enough antennas for two units. Only two APS-13 units are shown in the picture, but the descriptions say, usually, that there were four. Some descriptions say, three units.
Conclusions: 1) There are not enough antennas on the Little Boy for three or four APS-13 units. Also, the bomb is not big enough to accommodate the APS-13 units. There are only enough pairs for two units. 2) The two sections are spaced farther apart then the inventors intended. It was only designed for the thickness of a tail fin on a fighter plane.
AN/APS-13 (SCR 718) airborne "tail warning" radar
The AN/APS 13 radar system was used to alter the outcome of the Second World War in its most decisive form; it was with the deployment of the Atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan to end hostilities, these atomic bombs were designed to detonate or air-burst some 2,000 feet above ground level by the use of a proximity fuse devise, it was from this AN/APS 13 system that these proximity fuses were developed.
This is a simple graphic demonstration of why the four APS-13 units and the extra electronics, plus the 'gun barrel' won't fit into Little Boy. You can do this yourself with just some cardboard and scissors. And hopefully you will try it yourself. Or maybe if you're handy with AutoCAD, you can repeat this demonstration in a more technical fashion and in three dimension.
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It's doubtful that the antennas on Little Boy could have worked because the two halves were too far apart, the elements were crowded together, and there weren't enough antennas for all the APS-13 units.
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The A. N. A. P. S. 13 consists of a Unit of approximately 15" by 8" by 10" overall dimensions, mounted on the port side of the aircraft behind the pilot. The pilot's control box is mounted on the starboard knock out panel and carries an on/off switch and a test switch for the indicator lamp, which is mounted near the gun sight. The indicator lamp will light up at a range, which is pre-set on the ground. A single dipole aerial is carried on the port wing near the wing tip. The overall weight of the equipment is approximately 25 lbs.
Dimensions: http://www.hawkertempest.se/index.php/c ... he-tempest
Peak Power: 450 Watts
Range: 0.39 nautical miles (800 Yards)
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As stated in the patent, and as is the case with all dipole antennas, the director was to be shorter than the folded dipole element, and the reflector was to be shorter. (Note: The only active element is the dipole, that is the U-shaped part. It's bent into a U shape, so it's called a 'folded dipole'.) The other elements, the 'parasitic' elements, which are the straight rods, are only there to guide the radio wave into the dipole. The parasitic elements give the antenna gain, or directivity. Notice that on the antenna on the models pictured that the three elements are crowded close together. In the second picture, both of the straight rods are shorter than the U-shaped rod. This antenna would have no directivity towards the ground. Also look at the first picture. It does appear to have one rod longer, and the other shorter, than the U shaped rod. But they are still crowded together.
When were the antennas installed?
There are a few pictures that appear all over the net of the bomb in the loading pit.
Here are links for two:
Close up of Little Boy in pit
https://www.awesomestories.com/images/u ... bd058d.jpg
Little Boy in pit. GWU
http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NS ... -boy-2.jpg
In both pictures, you can see that the antennas aren't installed. In the second picture, it looks like a rag has been stuffed into the hole.
According to minute by minute accounts, the bomb was taken to the pit at noon. It was covered with a tarp, and guarded. At 3:00 in the afternoon, it was loaded onto the bomber plane, and at that time William Parsons returned, got into the bombay of the plane, and 'practiced' arming the bomb for two hours. Presumably, at this time, he would have installed the antennas. He had plenty of time. He was the one charged with the task of the final assembly and arming of the bomb while on the plane. Although tediously detailed accounts of the arming procedure are given in different sources, no mention is made in any story I can find on the net as to when he installed the antennas. No mention is made that he had the antennas with him when he returned to 'practice' the arming while the plane was on the ground. No mention is made that anyone carried the antennas on board the plane.
Of course, just because no account is given doesn't mean it didn't happen. But for something as important as the antennas, which were part of the detonation system, it seems someone would make mention of them. They wouldn't want to get out over the Pacific Ocean, and hear Parsons say, "Dang, I forgot the antennas." As with all other subsystems in modern U.S. nuclear weapons, the fuzing mechanisms are complex and backed-up by, and interlocked with, other systems. As an example, even the primitive LITTLE BOY and FAT MAN bombs of 1945 had three separate and interleaved parts to their fuzing systems. The main component was a modified U.S. Army Air Corps APS-13 fighter tail warning radar, nicknamed "Archie."
Source: The Swords of Armageddon: U.S. Nuclear Weapons Development since 1945, Chuck Hansen, September 4, 1995, vol. VIII, pp. 3-45
Memorandum dated July 19, 1943 to Captain W. S. Parsons from R. B. Brode, subject: Fuze Group Program.
By the spring of 1944, the APS-13 "tail warning device" was under study for use as a radar fuse.2 Originally designed to warn a pilot of another aircraft approaching the rear of his plane, the "Archie" had an effective range of about 2,000 to 2,500 feet.3
The arming and firing sequence for the first two atomic bombs was (1) 15 seconds after release, when the weapon had fallen 3,600 feet, the timer switches closed part of the firing circuit; (2) at an altitude of 7,000 feet, the barometric switch closed another part of the firing circuit and allowed electrical current from batteries in the bomb to charge a number of capacitors and turn on the radar fuses; (3) at an altitude of about 1,800 feet, radar signals emanating from the "Archies" and reflecting from the ground completed the last part of the firing circuit and triggered the detonation signal.
In the MK I LITTLE BOY, the firing signal went directly to the explosive primer that ignited the propellant to fire the uranium-235 projectile into the "target" uranium-235 assembly in the nose of the casing.
Very interesting interview with Morris Jeppson:
Mainichi: What kind of role did you take during the Hiroshima mission?
J: Well, I was trained for that role -- at Harvard and MIT in electronics, (and) at MIT in radar engineering -- and there were four small radars built into these bombs. There was an antenna for one of them, and there were four of them. They were very simple -- all they detected was firing an electronic signal to the ground which bounced back up and measured the time delay, and that measured the height of this bomb as it was falling above ground.
So my role -- six of us ended up from the Harvard and MIT electronic schools, Air Force schools. We were hired by Los Alamos to work with the Air Force on the fusing -- the radar fusing and all other stuff that was built in the bomb.
I was a weapon test officer and we worked with Los Alamos in the Air Force. I was in the Air Force during the evolution of the electronics fusing system of the bomb. And then I was chosen to fly the Hiroshima mission and it was still experimental, so I was to test the electronics on the bomb during the flight to Hiroshima. If there was a problem with the electronics, I reported the problem to this man (and) he told the pilot of the airplane to take the bomb back. In fact, I was instructed to tell him to take the bomb back to (the Pacific island of) Tinian if it wasn't working right.
Jeppson says the radar units 'measured the time delay'. The units were APS-13 units, and there was no circuitry in them to measure time delay. If Jeppson was a physicist and an electronics expert, as he claims, he should know this. With a radio signal traveling at the speed of light, and the bomb being only 1900 feet from the ground at detonation, that would be a 3800 foot round trip, and that would be a very small interval to measure.
3800 ft / 983571056ft/sec = 3.86 X 10^-6 seconds.
He says there were four units, and an antenna for one of them. He must have meant to say, for each one of them. Well, there was an antenna, but only half of an antenna pair.
From the same interview with Jeppson:
Mainichi: How about the bombardier?
J: (Thomas) Ferebee? He didn't know. He knew it had to be a very powerful bomb; otherwise he wouldn't have detonated it up high above the ground. If it had been detonated -- let's say the plane was flying at a low altitude like all of these hundreds of B-29s -- it would have destroyed the B-29 because they normally flew at six or seven thousand feet. This one flew at 30,000 feet. So the blast was like a shock-wave -- it was a shock-wave, but it didn't damage the airplane.
After explaining how the electronics detonated the bomb, he later says Ferebee detonated it. What did Ferebee have to do with how high the bomb detonated? Well, he couldn't have had anything to do with it. The claim that Ferebee was able to drop Little Boy just 800 feet from where he aimed is a fantastic claim. With the technology of 1945, he had about a fifty/fifty change of hitting Hiroshima.
This is a typical account of Ferebee dropping the bomb on Hiroshima:
http://www.people.com/people/archive/ar ... 37,00.html
The problem with these accounts is that there was no button, lever, trigger, or whatever on a Norden bombsight, that was pressed, pushed, or pulled to release the bombs. The Norden bombsight was an analog computer that calculated when the bombs were to be released, and an internal switch connected at the calculated moment to release the bomb. The point is, Ferebee had no special ability that 'tens of thousands' of other bombardiers didn't have. There's nothing he could have done to improve the accuracy of the Norden bombsight over what bombardiers were achieving. The Norden bombsight was an analog computer that automatically dropped the bomb. Since the Norden bombsight calculated the time to release the bomb, and released it automatically, Ferebee wouldn't know the 'moment' when the bomb was going to release. The bombardier could have his eyes shut when the bomb was released, and it wouldn't make any difference.
The weight of the “Little Boy” (the bomb dropped on Hiroshima) was considerable. The “Little Boy” minus its cladding weighed at least 4 metric tons. US official accounts say it contained 63.8 kilograms of enriched uranium. Some other accounts of this bomb say it weighed about 5 tons (5000 kilograms). The “total explosive charge” inside this bomb weighed about 90 kilograms, mainly uranium and an implied 26 kilograms of plutonium, or rather plutonium and other highly radioactive materials, which were separately produced at the Hanford nuclear materials site. The bomb was also equipped with an additional “pot” of explosive materials of about 30 cms diameter and 75 cms height, called “Little Chunk”, probably of conventional incendiary materials. It is likely or probable that “Little Boy” weighed around 5 tons, minus its bomb casing which measured about 1.5 metres by 4 metres. The overall total weight was therefore probably close to 10 tons. Today’s “strategic” nuclear weapons have similar explosive power (about 12 – 15 kilotons TNT) and are not very significantly lighter, whereas today’s “tactical” weapons, of about 4 or 5 kilotons TNT explosive power are much lighter, due for example to larger use of plutonium or similar radioactive materials.
As noted above, and using US official war data, “Little Boy” destroyed about 1.7 square miles (or 4.3 sq kms) of Hiroshima city. Taking its total weight, probably close to 10 tons, this release of destructive energy was extremely tiny by comparison with what a “true fission weapon” would have produced. Some estimates suggest that “Little Boy” may have used a total of more than 100 kilograms of enriched uranium, a highly incendiary mineral. The “consensus” or official estimate that “Little Boy” released about 13 – 16 kilotons TNT equivalent of energy was vastly smaller than the energy that would have been released by a theoretical-only “pure fission bomb”. We can note that entirely conventional World War II ordnance such as US thermite bombs, gasoline gel bombs, and kerosene gel bombs, abundantly used for air raids on Japan and Germany typically released or had a heat of combustion of 11000 kcals per kilogram weight of the explosive materials, mainly fossil fuels. The “Little Boy” did not yield significantly more than this, but did release gamma radiation. This is the only significant difference. Using US official data and concerning its bombing campaign on Tokyo in WWar II, US bombers dropped about 12 300 tons of non-nuclear incendiary explosives which completely burnt 53.2 sq. miles (about 136 sq kms) of the city. On this basis, about 393 tons of such conventional ordnance could have destroyed 1.7 sq miles of Hiroshima.
On a purely theoretical basis, only a few grams of Hydrogen gas (not Uranium the heaviest naturally occurring element on this planet) could have destroyed 1.7 sq miles of Hiroshima – if it had been fissioned. In other terms, a gasoline or kerosene incendiary bomb (releasing about 11 000 kcals/kg) should be exceeded in explosive power by about two billion times (2000 million times) by a “pure fission bomb”.
The following dosimetric diagrams show the gamma ray exposures levels at increasing distances from the epicenter of the explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Gamma Radiation Weapons are Dangerous
This response to your questions in no way denies the danger of (especially) gamma radiation weapons, but only contradicts the claim that “conventional nuclear weapons” are fission weapons.
Gamma radiation can be produced, or rather released by a number of processes using natural materials or substances extracted from them. By comparison, if the Hiroshima atom bomb had been a “pure fission weapon” it would have needed to release the “Einstein energy” of about 0.6 grams of uranium. But the weapon, with its incendiary casing probably weighed a total of around 10 tons or 10 million grams. Another approach is to look at the money and energy costs to produce “Little Boy”. Official US data says the total costs were about $2 billion (in dollars of 1941-45 value) but actual costs were much more than this. More important, to produce the official total of 63.8 kilograms of enriched uranium and a disputed total weight of plutonium it is likely a total of more than 9 tons of unenriched natural uranium was processed. At least 250 tons oil equivalent of energy or 375 tons of coal equivalent energy would have been needed, or more than 6 times the amount of energy released by the bomb. The thermal, chemical and electrical energy needed to produce the so-called fission bomb was heavily disproportionate to the energy release of “Little Boy”, but the gamma radiation released was deadly to human beings, after the blast and fire effects caused by its incendiary casing or cladding.
This radiation can be released by a well-known number of other procedures – for example those used on a daily base in nuclear power plants (NPPs). For nuclear weapons that are claimed to be “instant fission weapons” however, the chemical and other energy expenditure needed to produce them is greater than the explosive energy of the weapon by a large factor.
In other words “Little Boy” got its energy from fossil fuels used to enrich uranium and produce other incendiary materials for manufacturing the bomb, which only added the novelty of gamma radiation emission. To this day of course, the nuclear weapons powers or states possessing nuclear weapons (the Security Council 5 plus 4 others) exaggerate the destructive effect and power of their so-called fission weapons. Most scientists prefer not to discuss the subject, or point to “slow controlled fission” – but no net mass gains or losses – in nuclear power plants, operated using uranium which is mined, processed, enriched, transported and disposed of using fossil fuels.
The only difference between the Hiroshima bomb and “classical” bombs was that the conventional bombs radiated light and heat, but the Hiroshima bomb also released gamma radiation. This can be obtained by other methods and procedures than “instant fission as in the Sun”, and from other materials than only uranium and plutonium, for example waste products from NPPs, medical radiotherapy wastes, industrial X-ray equipment and its wastes, and others.
We all know, or think we know, why Hiroshima was bombed. This is because the bombing of Hiroshima is synonymous with the use of the atomic bomb in general. But why was Nagasaki bombed?
Why the city of Nagasaki as opposed to another city. That is well-known. Nagasaki only made it on the list after Kyoto was removed for being too much of an important cultural center. The initial target on August 9 was Kokura, but there was too much cloud cover for visual targeting, so the Bockscar moved on to the backup target, nearby Nagasaki, instead. Bad luck for Nagasaki, twice compounded.
Why was a second atomic bomb used at all, and so soon after the first one? Why wasn’t there more of a wait, to see what the Japanese response was? Was less than three days enough time for the Japanese to assess what had happened to Hiroshima and to have the meetings necessary to decide whether they were going to change their position on unconditional surrender? What was the intent?
There are, unsurprisingly, a number of theories about this amongst historians. There are some that think Nagasaki was justified and necessary. There are also many who agree with the historian Barton Bernstein, who argued that: “Whatever one thinks about the necessity of the first A-bomb, the second — dropped on Nagasaki on August 9 — was almost certainly unnecessary.” And there are those, like Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, who don’t think either of the atomic bombings had much effect on the final Japanese decision to unconditionally surrender when they did.
The first is the standard, “official” version — the second bomb was necessary to prove that the United States could manufacture atomic weapons in quantity. That is, the first atomic bomb proved it could be done, the second proved it wasn’t just a one-time thing. One wonders, of course, why anyone would think the Japanese would think the atomic bomb was a one-off thing, or that the Americans wouldn’t have the resolve to use it again. They had, after all, shown no flinching from mass destruction so far — they had firebombed 67 Japanese cities already — and while making an atomic bomb was indeed a big effort, the notion that they would be able to make one and no more seems somewhat far-fetched. The idea that the US would have a slow production line isn’t far-fetched, of course.
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So “Why did they bomb Nagasaki?” might not be the right question at all. The real question to ask might be: “Why did they stop with Nagasaki?” Which, in a somewhat twisted way, is actually a more hopeful question. It is not a question about why we chose to bomb again, but a question about why we chose not to.
There is this; 'Children of the A-Bomb', compiled by Dr Arata Osada. Compare it to other stories of areas firebombed in Europe by Allied war criminals. There may be accounts from survivors of the Tokyo firebombings as well to reference. Prior to these two nuclear hoax events, the allied (mainly US) war criminals firebombed 60+ Japanese towns/cities. How? Captured lands that provided new launching runways for the allied war criminals.
Interesting Read: Visualizing fissile materials
There were over 500 atmospheric nuclear tests conducted during the Cold War, and most of these were photographed multiple times. (There were over 50 dedicated cameras at the Trinity test, as one little data point.) The number of unique photographs of nuclear explosions must number in the several thousands. Poorly-used mushroom cloud photos, and repetitive photos:
This photo is often labeled as the “Tsar Bomba” cloud and it is not even an actual photograph of a nuclear test — it is a CGI rendering, and not even a very good one. An animated version is circulating on YouTube (see how easy it is to fake something visually) — the physics is all wrong regarding the fireball rise, the stem, etc., and the texturing is off. Apparently a lot of people have been fooled, though. There is film of the actual Tsar Bomba explosion, and one can readily appreciate how different it is.
The above photo is also sometimes labeled as the “Tsar Bomba,” and was recently featured on the cover a book about the British atomic bomb, labeled as a British thermonuclear weapon. It is actually a French nuclear weapon, specifically the test dubbed “Licorne,” a 914 kiloton thermonuclear shot detonated in 1970 at the Fangataufa atoll in French Polynesia. I do admit finding the confusion about this one amusing, especially when it is mislabeled as a British test. There are actually four shots from this same test that I don’t think most people realize are of a sequence, showing first the brief condensation cloud that formed in the first 20 seconds or so (which exaggerates the width of the actual mushroom cloud, similar to the famous Crossroads Baker photograph), and then tracks the mushroom cloud as it rises. When you resize them to the same scale (more or less), you can see that they are not four different shots at all, just differently timed photographs of the evolution of a single shot’s mushroom cloud:
Does it matter that we re-use, and sometimes mis-use, the same mushroom clouds over and over again? In a material sense it does not, because the people who use/misuse these clouds are really not using them to make a sophisticated visual or intellectual argument. Rather, they have chosen a “scary mushroom cloud” image for maximum visual effect.
From The Onion concerns the imagined allure of “the button”:
The problem with a big red button is that someone might actually press it. Like a cat. OK, so there isn’t a single nuclear button. Why do we talk about a button? This is a great history of technology question — “the button” is a metaphor, and not a new one. Starting in the 19th century, “the button” (or the “push button” or other variations on the same thing) started becoming a standard English idiom for “quick and easy and automatic.” The idea that you “push a button” and something happens — as easy as that! — shows up in the late Machine Age and continues onward.
So “the button” is just a metaphor for how technology makes things easy. That’s why everything in The Jetsons is button-based — the future was meant to take this to the extreme, where George Jetson would just spend all day at work pressing a single button.
The Roosevelt Hiroshima A-bomb never existed because it didn't work.
That it worked was just propaganda spread by various insiders to other insiders before and after the show. Like the Nagasaki bomb. Both Japanese towns were simply destroyed by a US, standard, napalm, carpet terror bombing by 300-400 B-29 planes raid early morning followed by single petrol bombs exploding and setting fire to a cloud of petrol mist above the towns looking like a FIREBALL ... that could be reported as an atomic bomb. The Japanese houses were generally simple wooden structures that burnt down quickly. Growing trees on the other hand didn't burn so easy. And walls of concrete and brick buildings remained intact. Solid bank buildings were not even damaged inside! The napalm bombs were made by the US Rocky Mountains Arsenal area of which that today is an ecological disaster that will cost US$ billions to clean up.
US propaganda June 8, 2013, suggests, e.g.:
"Japanese intelligence was predicting that U.S. forces might not invade for months. Soviet forces, on the other hand, could be in Japan proper in as little as 10 days. The Soviet invasion made a decision on ending the war extremely time sensitive."
Evidently Soviet forces had few ships in the Far east to invade Japan 1945. So Japan capitulated mid August 1945 and only USA occupied Japan until 1952. USSR and others just looked on. USA immediately created the Civil Censorship Detachment (CCD) within its Civil Information Section. CCD was secret.
You could not even say that censorship existed. Anybody in Japan taking photos of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and suggesting, e.g. that the two atomic bombs were fake was simply arrested and maybe executed because such suggestions disturbed public tranquility. How was it possible? The CCD was run by United Stasi of America's general Charles A. Willoughby in pure Soviet style. Charles apparently was a psychopath clever to invent things and as such suitable for US (Nazi Germany, USSR ...) Army intelligence and counter-intelligence services.
The propaganda lies and methods enforced by Charles A. Willoughby in Japan 1945-1952 are still on, of course ... 2014.
US terrorist napalm bombing leaflet - what would the Japanese do after reading it? Try and surrender? They did!
Today, 2014, all US A-bombs are allegedly manufactured at the Pantex Plant, at Amarillo, TX, USA, that is operated by Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) company from 1 July 2014. It is a strange place in the middle of nowhere ... where nobody but well paid guards work! So maybe the USA is neither producing new, nor deactivating old A-bombs that never worked in the first place? Isn't it good news! Luckily fission works only in peaceful, nuclear power plants and in civilian laboratories due to moderated free neutrons.
Pantex Plant atomic bomb making factory at Amarillo, Texas, USA - where nobody seems to work
Pantex Plant atomic bomb making factory sports field at Amarillo, Texas, USA, where nobody ever runs around
In a power plant the uranium U-235 is in the form of an oxide (a molecule) where the U-235 part may fission and produce heat under controlled forms. No critical masses! No exponential chain reactions. It can never explode. Only risk is overheating of the environment due to lack of cooling water Fukushima style. Then the reactor enclosure will burst and its bottom may drop out (melt) and some radioactive elements will leak out. Safety then is simply to ensure that cooling water is always available and that the bottoms of the reactors are STRONG. Quite simple actually.
In the end this is just my opinion. You are free to have and voice yours.
A little off topic but no less devious.
Why They Sank The Titanic - it is broken into 10 min segments - very interesting.