Joined: 24 Nov 2011 Posts: 1428 Location: The Caribbean of Canada
Posted: Fri Dec 26, 2014 12:28 pm Post subject:
Here is a more detailed response:
By no later than the 1920s emerging atomic science had already spawned the idea of using radioactive heat emitted by certain minerals, and substances extracted from them, to run electric power plants. Atomic theory – the “classic Einstein theory of E = mc(2)” – says that matter and energy are interchangeable, and tiny amounts of matter contain huge amounts of energy. This is claimed to be released by fission, and not by chemical, electrical or electromagnetic conversion or transformation.
Basic scientific problems remained, and still remain. The destructibility of mass should be well demonstrated. The loss of mass should yield amounts of heat energy comparable to those predicted by Einstein’s equation, very notably. Major issues for example include the exact weights of materials said or claimed to be transformed, and the chemical, electrical, electromagnetic or radioactive behavior of, for example, heavier atomic particles like the proton and boson (named for Bose). Scientific debate and controversy on this subject has never ceased.
Basically, if it is not possible to exactly measure the weight of these particles, their conversion by fission into radiation energy has doubt attached to it. Natural processes such as spallation in the atmosphere (nuclear transformation of for example carbon into nitrogen and oxygen) are due to cosmic-source gamma radiation. They are quantum mechanical effects, not fission effects. There is no “critical mass”. They are nothing to do with Newtonian-type “straight line” collision of particles, which is the only conceptual framework used in atomic science to supposedly cause fission and produce “mass gains and losses”.
The Fermi Experiment
US war officials took Enrico Fermi’s fission theory of shortly before 1941 seriously. Fermi had been able to release the nuclear energy of uranium through a sustained chain reaction, producing significant amounts of gamma radiation, but his “secret experiment” was not an experiment to prove that mass had been converted into heat energy. He proved that both heat energy and gamma radiation can be produced, and its energy could be transformed to other forms of energy. How he produced this gamma radiation (using large amounts of electrical energy and chemical reagents) was another subject. Both of the two US nuclear weapons dropped on Japan in 1945 were gamma radiation emitting. Their blast and incendiary effects were due to the nature of the materials used, especially uranium and the materials used in the very large bomb casings and claddings.
The Supreme War Council of Japan at first refused to surrender to the USA but soon after that the Emperor of Japan unconditionally surrendered saying that “ in view of this new type of weapon, Japan is now powerless to continue the war”.
If you start thinking about Little Boy as what it really was, a stage prop, and not a bomb, the photographs will start making more sense. This is a look at the photographs from the National Archive collection number RG-77-BT that show the Fat Man bomb being loaded into the loading pit at Tinian. These are all United States government photographs and have no copyright. They can all be viewed at http://www.alternatewars.com/Bomb_Loading/Bomb_Guide.htm. The originals are 4 by 5 inch contact prints, according to the personnel at the National Archives. They say they do not have the original negatives. In these photos, you can look for clues as to how much Fat Man weighed. Officially, it was 10,200 pounds, or five ton. Look at these photographs and decide for yourself, based upon your own experiences, if you think this is a five ton load.
Notice the antenna towards the front of the bomb. The antenna is silvery colored, probably aluminum. It has one loop with two straight rods on each side of the loop. It sets on a rectangle which is also silvery colored. You should be able to see two sets on each model. Presumably, there's another pair behind the model which are hidden from view. Look at the lengths and spacing of the elements. This is important in an antenna because it determines the frequency and pattern. This antenna that is shown on these models had a patent: 2452073 Compare the relative length and spacing of the antenna on the models with that of the drawings from the patent, shown below.
As is evident in reading the patent, and looking at the diagrams, the antenna had two parts, or halves, a right hand and a left hand part. One half was to be put on one side of the vertical stabilizer of the plane, and the other half was on the other side. The antenna was immune to variation in fin thickness, but note that they state, "within practical limits". A fin with a thickness of 28 inches isn't very practical. Since this antenna was meant to operate in pairs, three APS-13 units would have needed three pairs, and four APS-13 units would have needed four pairs. There are only two pairs, at most, shown on pictures of Little Boy. That would only be enough antennas for two units. Only two APS-13 units are shown in the picture, but the descriptions say, usually, that there were four. Some descriptions say, three units.
Conclusions: 1) There are not enough antennas on the Little Boy for three or four APS-13 units. Also, the bomb is not big enough to accommodate the APS-13 units. There are only enough pairs for two units. 2) The two sections are spaced farther apart then the inventors intended. It was only designed for the thickness of a tail fin on a fighter plane.
AN/APS-13 (SCR 718) airborne "tail warning" radar
The AN/APS 13 radar system was used to alter the outcome of the Second World War in its most decisive form; it was with the deployment of the Atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan to end hostilities, these atomic bombs were designed to detonate or air-burst some 2,000 feet above ground level by the use of a proximity fuse devise, it was from this AN/APS 13 system that these proximity fuses were developed.
This is a simple graphic demonstration of why the four APS-13 units and the extra electronics, plus the 'gun barrel' won't fit into Little Boy. You can do this yourself with just some cardboard and scissors. And hopefully you will try it yourself. Or maybe if you're handy with AutoCAD, you can repeat this demonstration in a more technical fashion and in three dimension.
It's doubtful that the antennas on Little Boy could have worked because the two halves were too far apart, the elements were crowded together, and there weren't enough antennas for all the APS-13 units.
The A. N. A. P. S. 13 consists of a Unit of approximately 15" by 8" by 10" overall dimensions, mounted on the port side of the aircraft behind the pilot. The pilot's control box is mounted on the starboard knock out panel and carries an on/off switch and a test switch for the indicator lamp, which is mounted near the gun sight. The indicator lamp will light up at a range, which is pre-set on the ground. A single dipole aerial is carried on the port wing near the wing tip. The overall weight of the equipment is approximately 25 lbs.
As stated in the patent, and as is the case with all dipole antennas, the director was to be shorter than the folded dipole element, and the reflector was to be shorter. (Note: The only active element is the dipole, that is the U-shaped part. It's bent into a U shape, so it's called a 'folded dipole'.) The other elements, the 'parasitic' elements, which are the straight rods, are only there to guide the radio wave into the dipole. The parasitic elements give the antenna gain, or directivity. Notice that on the antenna on the models pictured that the three elements are crowded close together. In the second picture, both of the straight rods are shorter than the U-shaped rod. This antenna would have no directivity towards the ground. Also look at the first picture. It does appear to have one rod longer, and the other shorter, than the U shaped rod. But they are still crowded together.
When were the antennas installed?
There are a few pictures that appear all over the net of the bomb in the loading pit.
In both pictures, you can see that the antennas aren't installed. In the second picture, it looks like a rag has been stuffed into the hole.
According to minute by minute accounts, the bomb was taken to the pit at noon. It was covered with a tarp, and guarded. At 3:00 in the afternoon, it was loaded onto the bomber plane, and at that time William Parsons returned, got into the bombay of the plane, and 'practiced' arming the bomb for two hours. Presumably, at this time, he would have installed the antennas. He had plenty of time. He was the one charged with the task of the final assembly and arming of the bomb while on the plane. Although tediously detailed accounts of the arming procedure are given in different sources, no mention is made in any story I can find on the net as to when he installed the antennas. No mention is made that he had the antennas with him when he returned to 'practice' the arming while the plane was on the ground. No mention is made that anyone carried the antennas on board the plane.
Of course, just because no account is given doesn't mean it didn't happen. But for something as important as the antennas, which were part of the detonation system, it seems someone would make mention of them. They wouldn't want to get out over the Pacific Ocean, and hear Parsons say, "Dang, I forgot the antennas." As with all other subsystems in modern U.S. nuclear weapons, the fuzing mechanisms are complex and backed-up by, and interlocked with, other systems. As an example, even the primitive LITTLE BOY and FAT MAN bombs of 1945 had three separate and interleaved parts to their fuzing systems. The main component was a modified U.S. Army Air Corps APS-13 fighter tail warning radar, nicknamed "Archie."
Source: The Swords of Armageddon: U.S. Nuclear Weapons Development since 1945, Chuck Hansen, September 4, 1995, vol. VIII, pp. 3-45
Memorandum dated July 19, 1943 to Captain W. S. Parsons from R. B. Brode, subject: Fuze Group Program.
By the spring of 1944, the APS-13 "tail warning device" was under study for use as a radar fuse.2 Originally designed to warn a pilot of another aircraft approaching the rear of his plane, the "Archie" had an effective range of about 2,000 to 2,500 feet.3
The arming and firing sequence for the first two atomic bombs was (1) 15 seconds after release, when the weapon had fallen 3,600 feet, the timer switches closed part of the firing circuit; (2) at an altitude of 7,000 feet, the barometric switch closed another part of the firing circuit and allowed electrical current from batteries in the bomb to charge a number of capacitors and turn on the radar fuses; (3) at an altitude of about 1,800 feet, radar signals emanating from the "Archies" and reflecting from the ground completed the last part of the firing circuit and triggered the detonation signal.
In the MK I LITTLE BOY, the firing signal went directly to the explosive primer that ignited the propellant to fire the uranium-235 projectile into the "target" uranium-235 assembly in the nose of the casing.
Very interesting interview with Morris Jeppson:
Mainichi: What kind of role did you take during the Hiroshima mission?
J: Well, I was trained for that role -- at Harvard and MIT in electronics, (and) at MIT in radar engineering -- and there were four small radars built into these bombs. There was an antenna for one of them, and there were four of them. They were very simple -- all they detected was firing an electronic signal to the ground which bounced back up and measured the time delay, and that measured the height of this bomb as it was falling above ground.
So my role -- six of us ended up from the Harvard and MIT electronic schools, Air Force schools. We were hired by Los Alamos to work with the Air Force on the fusing -- the radar fusing and all other stuff that was built in the bomb.
I was a weapon test officer and we worked with Los Alamos in the Air Force. I was in the Air Force during the evolution of the electronics fusing system of the bomb. And then I was chosen to fly the Hiroshima mission and it was still experimental, so I was to test the electronics on the bomb during the flight to Hiroshima. If there was a problem with the electronics, I reported the problem to this man (and) he told the pilot of the airplane to take the bomb back. In fact, I was instructed to tell him to take the bomb back to (the Pacific island of) Tinian if it wasn't working right.
Jeppson says the radar units 'measured the time delay'. The units were APS-13 units, and there was no circuitry in them to measure time delay. If Jeppson was a physicist and an electronics expert, as he claims, he should know this. With a radio signal traveling at the speed of light, and the bomb being only 1900 feet from the ground at detonation, that would be a 3800 foot round trip, and that would be a very small interval to measure.
3800 ft / 983571056ft/sec = 3.86 X 10^-6 seconds.
He says there were four units, and an antenna for one of them. He must have meant to say, for each one of them. Well, there was an antenna, but only half of an antenna pair.
From the same interview with Jeppson:
Mainichi: How about the bombardier?
J: (Thomas) Ferebee? He didn't know. He knew it had to be a very powerful bomb; otherwise he wouldn't have detonated it up high above the ground. If it had been detonated -- let's say the plane was flying at a low altitude like all of these hundreds of B-29s -- it would have destroyed the B-29 because they normally flew at six or seven thousand feet. This one flew at 30,000 feet. So the blast was like a shock-wave -- it was a shock-wave, but it didn't damage the airplane.
After explaining how the electronics detonated the bomb, he later says Ferebee detonated it. What did Ferebee have to do with how high the bomb detonated? Well, he couldn't have had anything to do with it. The claim that Ferebee was able to drop Little Boy just 800 feet from where he aimed is a fantastic claim. With the technology of 1945, he had about a fifty/fifty change of hitting Hiroshima.
This is a typical account of Ferebee dropping the bomb on Hiroshima:
The problem with these accounts is that there was no button, lever, trigger, or whatever on a Norden bombsight, that was pressed, pushed, or pulled to release the bombs. The Norden bombsight was an analog computer that calculated when the bombs were to be released, and an internal switch connected at the calculated moment to release the bomb. The point is, Ferebee had no special ability that 'tens of thousands' of other bombardiers didn't have. There's nothing he could have done to improve the accuracy of the Norden bombsight over what bombardiers were achieving. The Norden bombsight was an analog computer that automatically dropped the bomb. Since the Norden bombsight calculated the time to release the bomb, and released it automatically, Ferebee wouldn't know the 'moment' when the bomb was going to release. The bombardier could have his eyes shut when the bomb was released, and it wouldn't make any difference.
The weight of the “Little Boy” (the bomb dropped on Hiroshima) was considerable. The “Little Boy” minus its cladding weighed at least 4 metric tons. US official accounts say it contained 63.8 kilograms of enriched uranium. Some other accounts of this bomb say it weighed about 5 tons (5000 kilograms). The “total explosive charge” inside this bomb weighed about 90 kilograms, mainly uranium and an implied 26 kilograms of plutonium, or rather plutonium and other highly radioactive materials, which were separately produced at the Hanford nuclear materials site. The bomb was also equipped with an additional “pot” of explosive materials of about 30 cms diameter and 75 cms height, called “Little Chunk”, probably of conventional incendiary materials. It is likely or probable that “Little Boy” weighed around 5 tons, minus its bomb casing which measured about 1.5 metres by 4 metres. The overall total weight was therefore probably close to 10 tons. Today’s “strategic” nuclear weapons have similar explosive power (about 12 – 15 kilotons TNT) and are not very significantly lighter, whereas today’s “tactical” weapons, of about 4 or 5 kilotons TNT explosive power are much lighter, due for example to larger use of plutonium or similar radioactive materials.
As noted above, and using US official war data, “Little Boy” destroyed about 1.7 square miles (or 4.3 sq kms) of Hiroshima city. Taking its total weight, probably close to 10 tons, this release of destructive energy was extremely tiny by comparison with what a “true fission weapon” would have produced. Some estimates suggest that “Little Boy” may have used a total of more than 100 kilograms of enriched uranium, a highly incendiary mineral. The “consensus” or official estimate that “Little Boy” released about 13 – 16 kilotons TNT equivalent of energy was vastly smaller than the energy that would have been released by a theoretical-only “pure fission bomb”. We can note that entirely conventional World War II ordnance such as US thermite bombs, gasoline gel bombs, and kerosene gel bombs, abundantly used for air raids on Japan and Germany typically released or had a heat of combustion of 11000 kcals per kilogram weight of the explosive materials, mainly fossil fuels. The “Little Boy” did not yield significantly more than this, but did release gamma radiation. This is the only significant difference. Using US official data and concerning its bombing campaign on Tokyo in WWar II, US bombers dropped about 12 300 tons of non-nuclear incendiary explosives which completely burnt 53.2 sq. miles (about 136 sq kms) of the city. On this basis, about 393 tons of such conventional ordnance could have destroyed 1.7 sq miles of Hiroshima.
On a purely theoretical basis, only a few grams of Hydrogen gas (not Uranium the heaviest naturally occurring element on this planet) could have destroyed 1.7 sq miles of Hiroshima – if it had been fissioned. In other terms, a gasoline or kerosene incendiary bomb (releasing about 11 000 kcals/kg) should be exceeded in explosive power by about two billion times (2000 million times) by a “pure fission bomb”.
The following dosimetric diagrams show the gamma ray exposures levels at increasing distances from the epicenter of the explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Gamma Radiation Weapons are Dangerous
This response to your questions in no way denies the danger of (especially) gamma radiation weapons, but only contradicts the claim that “conventional nuclear weapons” are fission weapons.
Gamma radiation can be produced, or rather released by a number of processes using natural materials or substances extracted from them. By comparison, if the Hiroshima atom bomb had been a “pure fission weapon” it would have needed to release the “Einstein energy” of about 0.6 grams of uranium. But the weapon, with its incendiary casing probably weighed a total of around 10 tons or 10 million grams. Another approach is to look at the money and energy costs to produce “Little Boy”. Official US data says the total costs were about $2 billion (in dollars of 1941-45 value) but actual costs were much more than this. More important, to produce the official total of 63.8 kilograms of enriched uranium and a disputed total weight of plutonium it is likely a total of more than 9 tons of unenriched natural uranium was processed. At least 250 tons oil equivalent of energy or 375 tons of coal equivalent energy would have been needed, or more than 6 times the amount of energy released by the bomb. The thermal, chemical and electrical energy needed to produce the so-called fission bomb was heavily disproportionate to the energy release of “Little Boy”, but the gamma radiation released was deadly to human beings, after the blast and fire effects caused by its incendiary casing or cladding.
This radiation can be released by a well-known number of other procedures – for example those used on a daily base in nuclear power plants (NPPs). For nuclear weapons that are claimed to be “instant fission weapons” however, the chemical and other energy expenditure needed to produce them is greater than the explosive energy of the weapon by a large factor.
In other words “Little Boy” got its energy from fossil fuels used to enrich uranium and produce other incendiary materials for manufacturing the bomb, which only added the novelty of gamma radiation emission. To this day of course, the nuclear weapons powers or states possessing nuclear weapons (the Security Council 5 plus 4 others) exaggerate the destructive effect and power of their so-called fission weapons. Most scientists prefer not to discuss the subject, or point to “slow controlled fission” – but no net mass gains or losses – in nuclear power plants, operated using uranium which is mined, processed, enriched, transported and disposed of using fossil fuels.
The only difference between the Hiroshima bomb and “classical” bombs was that the conventional bombs radiated light and heat, but the Hiroshima bomb also released gamma radiation. This can be obtained by other methods and procedures than “instant fission as in the Sun”, and from other materials than only uranium and plutonium, for example waste products from NPPs, medical radiotherapy wastes, industrial X-ray equipment and its wastes, and others.
We all know, or think we know, why Hiroshima was bombed. This is because the bombing of Hiroshima is synonymous with the use of the atomic bomb in general. But why was Nagasaki bombed?
Why the city of Nagasaki as opposed to another city. That is well-known. Nagasaki only made it on the list after Kyoto was removed for being too much of an important cultural center. The initial target on August 9 was Kokura, but there was too much cloud cover for visual targeting, so the Bockscar moved on to the backup target, nearby Nagasaki, instead. Bad luck for Nagasaki, twice compounded.
Why was a second atomic bomb used at all, and so soon after the first one? Why wasn’t there more of a wait, to see what the Japanese response was? Was less than three days enough time for the Japanese to assess what had happened to Hiroshima and to have the meetings necessary to decide whether they were going to change their position on unconditional surrender? What was the intent?
There are, unsurprisingly, a number of theories about this amongst historians. There are some that think Nagasaki was justified and necessary. There are also many who agree with the historian Barton Bernstein, who argued that: “Whatever one thinks about the necessity of the first A-bomb, the second — dropped on Nagasaki on August 9 — was almost certainly unnecessary.” And there are those, like Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, who don’t think either of the atomic bombings had much effect on the final Japanese decision to unconditionally surrender when they did.
The first is the standard, “official” version — the second bomb was necessary to prove that the United States could manufacture atomic weapons in quantity. That is, the first atomic bomb proved it could be done, the second proved it wasn’t just a one-time thing. One wonders, of course, why anyone would think the Japanese would think the atomic bomb was a one-off thing, or that the Americans wouldn’t have the resolve to use it again. They had, after all, shown no flinching from mass destruction so far — they had firebombed 67 Japanese cities already — and while making an atomic bomb was indeed a big effort, the notion that they would be able to make one and no more seems somewhat far-fetched. The idea that the US would have a slow production line isn’t far-fetched, of course.
So “Why did they bomb Nagasaki?” might not be the right question at all. The real question to ask might be: “Why did they stop with Nagasaki?” Which, in a somewhat twisted way, is actually a more hopeful question. It is not a question about why we chose to bomb again, but a question about why we chose not to.
There is this; 'Children of the A-Bomb', compiled by Dr Arata Osada. Compare it to other stories of areas firebombed in Europe by Allied war criminals. There may be accounts from survivors of the Tokyo firebombings as well to reference. Prior to these two nuclear hoax events, the allied (mainly US) war criminals firebombed 60+ Japanese towns/cities. How? Captured lands that provided new launching runways for the allied war criminals.
There were over 500 atmospheric nuclear tests conducted during the Cold War, and most of these were photographed multiple times. (There were over 50 dedicated cameras at the Trinity test, as one little data point.) The number of unique photographs of nuclear explosions must number in the several thousands. Poorly-used mushroom cloud photos, and repetitive photos:
This photo is often labeled as the “Tsar Bomba” cloud and it is not even an actual photograph of a nuclear test — it is a CGI rendering, and not even a very good one. An animated version is circulating on YouTube (see how easy it is to fake something visually) — the physics is all wrong regarding the fireball rise, the stem, etc., and the texturing is off. Apparently a lot of people have been fooled, though. There is film of the actual Tsar Bomba explosion, and one can readily appreciate how different it is.
The above photo is also sometimes labeled as the “Tsar Bomba,” and was recently featured on the cover a book about the British atomic bomb, labeled as a British thermonuclear weapon. It is actually a French nuclear weapon, specifically the test dubbed “Licorne,” a 914 kiloton thermonuclear shot detonated in 1970 at the Fangataufa atoll in French Polynesia. I do admit finding the confusion about this one amusing, especially when it is mislabeled as a British test. There are actually four shots from this same test that I don’t think most people realize are of a sequence, showing first the brief condensation cloud that formed in the first 20 seconds or so (which exaggerates the width of the actual mushroom cloud, similar to the famous Crossroads Baker photograph), and then tracks the mushroom cloud as it rises. When you resize them to the same scale (more or less), you can see that they are not four different shots at all, just differently timed photographs of the evolution of a single shot’s mushroom cloud:
Does it matter that we re-use, and sometimes mis-use, the same mushroom clouds over and over again? In a material sense it does not, because the people who use/misuse these clouds are really not using them to make a sophisticated visual or intellectual argument. Rather, they have chosen a “scary mushroom cloud” image for maximum visual effect.
From The Onion concerns the imagined allure of “the button”:
The problem with a big red button is that someone might actually press it. Like a cat. OK, so there isn’t a single nuclear button. Why do we talk about a button? This is a great history of technology question — “the button” is a metaphor, and not a new one. Starting in the 19th century, “the button” (or the “push button” or other variations on the same thing) started becoming a standard English idiom for “quick and easy and automatic.” The idea that you “push a button” and something happens — as easy as that! — shows up in the late Machine Age and continues onward.
So “the button” is just a metaphor for how technology makes things easy. That’s why everything in The Jetsons is button-based — the future was meant to take this to the extreme, where George Jetson would just spend all day at work pressing a single button.
The Roosevelt Hiroshima A-bomb never existed because it didn't work.
That it worked was just propaganda spread by various insiders to other insiders before and after the show. Like the Nagasaki bomb. Both Japanese towns were simply destroyed by a US, standard, napalm, carpet terror bombing by 300-400 B-29 planes raid early morning followed by single petrol bombs exploding and setting fire to a cloud of petrol mist above the towns looking like a FIREBALL ... that could be reported as an atomic bomb. The Japanese houses were generally simple wooden structures that burnt down quickly. Growing trees on the other hand didn't burn so easy. And walls of concrete and brick buildings remained intact. Solid bank buildings were not even damaged inside! The napalm bombs were made by the US Rocky Mountains Arsenal area of which that today is an ecological disaster that will cost US$ billions to clean up.
US propaganda June 8, 2013, suggests, e.g.:
"Japanese intelligence was predicting that U.S. forces might not invade for months. Soviet forces, on the other hand, could be in Japan proper in as little as 10 days. The Soviet invasion made a decision on ending the war extremely time sensitive." Source
Evidently Soviet forces had few ships in the Far east to invade Japan 1945. So Japan capitulated mid August 1945 and only USA occupied Japan until 1952. USSR and others just looked on. USA immediately created the Civil Censorship Detachment (CCD) within its Civil Information Section. CCD was secret.
You could not even say that censorship existed. Anybody in Japan taking photos of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and suggesting, e.g. that the two atomic bombs were fake was simply arrested and maybe executed because such suggestions disturbed public tranquility. How was it possible? The CCD was run by United Stasi of America's general Charles A. Willoughby in pure Soviet style. Charles apparently was a psychopath clever to invent things and as such suitable for US (Nazi Germany, USSR ...) Army intelligence and counter-intelligence services.
The propaganda lies and methods enforced by Charles A. Willoughby in Japan 1945-1952 are still on, of course ... 2014.
US terrorist napalm bombing leaflet - what would the Japanese do after reading it? Try and surrender? They did!
Today, 2014, all US A-bombs are allegedly manufactured at the Pantex Plant, at Amarillo, TX, USA, that is operated by Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) company from 1 July 2014. It is a strange place in the middle of nowhere ... where nobody but well paid guards work! So maybe the USA is neither producing new, nor deactivating old A-bombs that never worked in the first place? Isn't it good news! Luckily fission works only in peaceful, nuclear power plants and in civilian laboratories due to moderated free neutrons.
Pantex Plant atomic bomb making factory at Amarillo, Texas, USA - where nobody seems to work
Pantex Plant atomic bomb making factory sports field at Amarillo, Texas, USA, where nobody ever runs around
In a power plant the uranium U-235 is in the form of an oxide (a molecule) where the U-235 part may fission and produce heat under controlled forms. No critical masses! No exponential chain reactions. It can never explode. Only risk is overheating of the environment due to lack of cooling water Fukushima style. Then the reactor enclosure will burst and its bottom may drop out (melt) and some radioactive elements will leak out. Safety then is simply to ensure that cooling water is always available and that the bottoms of the reactors are STRONG. Quite simple actually.
In the end this is just my opinion. You are free to have and voice yours.
A little off topic but no less devious.
Why They Sank The Titanic - it is broken into 10 min segments - very interesting. _________________ "Now water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend." - Bruce Lee
"Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth." - Buddha
Last edited by Southpark Fan on Mon Dec 29, 2014 1:20 pm; edited 7 times in total
Very, very interesting; wouldn't surprise me in the least! They love to have us scared sh*tless permanently, whether it be terrorism ("perpetrated with a dirty bomb" of course!), a financial collapse, communism and so on.
This classic from 1951 called "duck and cover" helped scaring the living daylights out of the US people, truly pathetic;
Here's a site that has some more proof that yes indeed nuclear bombs may be one of the biggest scams in history. Lots of technical info for people that want some scientific back-up!
From the website;
1.1 Introduction to the Atomic Bomb Hoax 1942-2014
53 countries and 4 observing organizations and their leaders of the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit headed by US president B. Obama apparently still believe that Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons. They should study this web page.
Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). A nuclear fission process produces, apart from energy, free neutrons. Nuclear fission produces energy for nuclear power but cannot drive the explosion (sic) of nuclear weapons as suggested by Wikpedia and others. Nuclear power is possible because certain substances called nuclear fuels undergo fission, when struck by fission neutrons, and in turn emit neutrons, when they break apart. This makes possible a peaceful, self-sustaining, moderated nuclear chain reaction that releases energy at a controlled rate in a nuclear reactor. A very rapid, uncontrolled, exponential rate of fission of a critical mass of Uranium 235 or Plutonium being mechanically compressed in a nuclear weapon, i.e. an atomic bomb - an A-bomb - is physically not possible. It is only idiotic propaganda created by some idiots 1942/5 and still in force 2014! The hoax is today promoted by journalist Eric Schlosser in his book Command and Control: Nuclear Weapons, the Damascus Accident, and the Illusion of Safety published in September 2013 and by US history professor Alex Wellerstein. They have not understood that all A-bombs are just a simple, magic trick to impress the audience of the show.
Killing/bombing poor civilians was common practice during WW2 on both sides but the allies were in the lead. A typical US bomber run on a civilian, non-military Japanese area, and there were many, would be made at night, at low altitude and deliver a mixture of high explosive and incendiary bombs. The cruel objective was to turn the closely-packed, wooden homes and buildings prevalent in the Japanese cities into raging infernos and ultimately into the most destructive of all weapons - the firestorm. Tokyo on the night of March 9-10, 1945 is a typical example. A force of 334 B-29s was unleashed - each plane stripped of ammunition for its machine guns to allow it to carry more fire-bombs. The lead attackers arrived over the city just after dark and were followed by a procession of death that lasted until dawn. The fires started by the initial raiders could be seen from 150 miles away. The results were devastating: almost 17 square miles of the city were reduced to ashes. Estimates of the number of defenceless civilians, mostly elderly, women and children killed range between 80 000 and 200 000. The young men were evidently not at home but served in the armed forces. The industry was located far away. The military value of the fire bombing raids was zero.
Below is a photo/text from Hiroshima 'ground zero' autumn 1945 after the streets had been cleared of debris (Source: http://gigamaster.blogspot.fr/2012/11/infographics-nuclear-explosions.html). It is clear to me that there was no 'ground zero' and that no atomic bomb exploded here and destroyed buildings, bridges, inhabitants and everything as suggested by US military authorities. It seems that all, one or two storeys wooden/paper buildings housing mostly poor people were simply burnt down by napalm carpet bombing (exactly like Tokyo March and Yokohama May 1945 - a city I know very well) leaving steel bridges and the external walls/roofs of all brick/concrete office buildings intact. It is common knowledge that 1945 central Hiroshima and Nagasaki was 95% wooden/paper houses for housing and simple stores/shops and only 5% concrete buildings, banks, insurance companies, trading companies offices, etc. And all had quite bad fire protection. The heavy industry and any military compunds were located outside the city centre.
_________________ "A person hears only what he understands."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Joined: 24 Nov 2011 Posts: 1428 Location: The Caribbean of Canada
Posted: Tue Dec 30, 2014 5:10 pm Post subject:
Interesting link Plato - thanks! Dude knows his stuff.
The Shame of Noam Chomsky and the Gatekeepers of the Left
Duck and Cover - The World Is Cruising Toward Nuclear War!
Noam Chomsky The Gatekeeper And MIT/ DOD Shill _________________ "Now water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend." - Bruce Lee
"Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth." - Buddha
I really like history. I found this book was a useful source of information about the politics, resource economics, strategy, espionage, deals and swindles going on during 1930 to 1946. The author needed to dig for this info to make his argument. I don't really have an opinion one way or the other on what transpired - and I do not advocate anyone believe one way or another. But he does make a compelling case to back up his hypothesis and I do believe that in the 21st century we are still allowed to read books correct? I do not buy into nuke weapons working - ever, the moon landing, nor the official story concerning 9/11.
I do believe the world is sick and tired of constant whining and poor us coming from specific country, year after year. Like they are the only country/population facing hardship. Placing that above everyone else in the world. It's just about as nauseating as hearing terrorist, jihadi, muslim day after fucking day......on and on....for the past 12 yrs. New theme please. Maybe we could talk about uplifting the human condition, and perhaps sharing the concentrated wealth of the 80 individuals with 50% of the worlds wealth with the other 6, 000, 000, 920 individuals on the planet. _________________ "Now water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend." - Bruce Lee
"Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth." - Buddha
Last edited by Southpark Fan on Thu Jan 22, 2015 8:46 am; edited 6 times in total
Joined: 11 Feb 2006 Posts: 2950 Location: 36ï¿½ 3'N x 86ï¿½40'W
Posted: Wed Jan 21, 2015 9:15 pm Post subject:
I been studying the holocaust stuff rather intently the past month or so.
I know it's not a popular opinion (cough) but, I am forced by conscience to admit, a lot of the evidence is extremely convincing. _________________ "No matter what happens, ever... there's ALWAYS at least one reason. And the top reason is ALWAYS money."
What a waste of resources. Notice the first line; the US government will spend...me thinks the US government and others around the globe no longer work for the people. So much for uplifting the human condition - today. Also, how do they know these new systems work; if they no longer test? Oh right, I forgot they never worked in the first place. No more moon landings to fleece the public, no more Vietnam's to embezzle funds...so they stick with the old standby - the MIC to line their pockets. It's time for a change worldwide in how our governments toss around our money.
The US government will spend an estimated $348 billion over the next decade to maintain, upgrade and operate its nuclear arsenal, according to a new estimate by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO).
That figure is slightly down from a Dec. 2013 estimate of $355 billion, but still represents an average price tag of $35 billion a year — major costs in an era when the Pentagon is focused on finding savings.
The Pentagon's share of the $348 billion total is estimated at $227 billion, or about $6 billion more than the 10-year estimate published in 2013. The Department of Energy's total has shrunk by $13 billion in the newer estimate, down to $121 billion.
The drop in overall cost is due in part to "budget-driven delays in several programs, including a three-year delay for the new cruise missile and its nuclear warhead and longer delays in some programs for extending the useful lives of nuclear warheads," the CBO wrote in its report, released Thursday.
The overall breakdown looks like this:
$160 billion for strategic nuclear delivery systems and weapons;
$8 billion for tactical nuclear delivery systems and weapons;
$79 billion for nuclear weapons laboratories and their supporting activities;
$52 billion for nuclear-related command, control, communications, and early-warning systems;
$49 billion representing CBO's estimate of additional costs that would be incurred over the coming decade if the growth rates for the nuclear program's costs are similar to the average.
Costs were estimated by looking at nuclear budget lines, examining long-range plans for each relevant program, and projecting each one out.
"Over the next two decades, the Congress will need to make decisions about the extent to which essentially all of the U.S. nuclear delivery systems and weapons will be modernized or replaced with new systems," the authors of the study wrote. Indeed, there are major upgrades planned to the bomber, nuclear submarine and ICBM fleets, something the CBO calculated into their long-term projections.
The CBO projects $40 billion to be spent on the bomber fleet during this time period, which includes an expected ramp up in the Air Force's new Long Range Strike-Bomber. The nuclear submarine forces are estimated at $83 billion over 10 years, while ICBMs will cost $26 billion over the next decade.
Easy photographic evidence. If this awesome weapon were real - why fake it?
So what does this faking indicate? I would say it indicates one of two things (*I will be told there is a third possibility: they wanted pictures to act as propaganda, but couldn't shield the film from gamma radiation, even ten miles out. So the events were real but they had to fake the pictures. That explanation may hold near ground zero, where no film (especially video) camera could possibly work. But at a distance of many miles, that explanation falls apart. Ionizing radiation from a blast is said to be only 5% of the total energy, which drops by the square with distance. So while you wouldn't want to be standing there for any amount of time, a camera with a fast shutter speed should have a high probability of capturing some visible light without also capturing a fatal gamma ray. The Russian's Tsar Bomba picture was taken 100 miles out, so they shouldn't have had to fake that. But they did):
1) Either the entire nuclear program has been faked to keep your ass under the desk, ducked and covered;
2) or the nuclear program is real but our military didn't wish to cause this amount of real destruction on our lovely home planet Earth.
Those who are familiar with the scruples of the military wouldn't bet on the second possibility, seeming to leave us with the first.
The second possibility may have a variation: perhaps the military wasn't allowed to run these tests.
That implies someone or something which has the power to disallow the military from doing things, which leads us into other problems. I will leave that problem unsolved for now, only giving you a pointer, which is this: either someone behind our own government is more benevolent than we think, or someone behind the Russian government is more benevolent (and powerful) than we think, or the apparent benevolence we see here comes from some hidden third party. Whatever explanation you choose to embrace should give you a surge of hope. Things may be bad, but they may not be quite as bad as the story we have been sold. The fact that our government has long been faking so many events gives you no reason to trust them, but it beats the hell out of the events being real. Given the choice of an honest government and terrible real events or a dishonest government and terrible fake events, I will take the second any day.
Source link _________________ "Now water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend." - Bruce Lee
"Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth." - Buddha
You see the problem with what you are positing is that every government is eagert to get hold of something that doesn't exist for bargaining purposes and that all major governments have been spending ridiculous sums of money on acquiring something which doesn't exist and is completely fake.
I, have a really hard time believing that there have not been tests of said weapons. If the photographs mentioned are indeed fake then perhaps it is to create this disinfo campaign, to create a buzz about there nukes being fake, so that in time they then proven to be wrong.
Moreover as these weapons become all the more devastating, the prevailing winds according to what is projected would kill millions even from a mini nuke, so yes, I could envisage that the consequences of using them would then lead to a series of events beyond anyone's control.
The spectre of all out devastation is a good equaliser against the deployment of them. If you look at the fallout from DU, that is devastating enough, but the immediate devastation is fairly localised.
Just from a rational perspective, I can't even begin to get entangled in this notion that they don't actually exist.
Joined: 24 Nov 2011 Posts: 1428 Location: The Caribbean of Canada
Posted: Tue Feb 24, 2015 7:59 am Post subject:
I have heard a NASA scientist say, 'oh 8-12in. of lead is enough to protect a human in space' (from high doses of radiation). So how do they survive space walks without suffering major cellular damage and other adverse health effects? You can find out about radiation in space here - http://spacestation.imax.com/ A new study highlights one of the big problems with extended space travel: galactic cosmic ray radiation. According to the report, astronauts on the International Space Station would receive doses that exceed their lifetime limits after just 18 months for women and two years for men. A Mars mission crew would be spending at least this long in the harsh radiation of deep space. http://www.wired.com/2014/04/radiation-risk-iss-mars/
There are over 220 countries now in the world - 9 state they have fission weapons. That is less than 3.9% I have to disagree when you say 'every'. My post above explains quite well how said fission weapons test was faked to cover a mass Napalm slaughter (with a Magnesium bomb for the flash). If the weapons exist and are functional, why the need to fake a test. I do not believe in the benevolence of the 'military' to save our environment from the results of testing - if they existed. Where does Israel test it's nukes? N Korea? The US for that matter?
Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). A nuclear fission process produces, apart from energy, free neutrons. Nuclear fission produces energy for nuclear power but cannot drive nuclear weapons as suggested by Wikipedia and others. Nuclear power is possible because certain substances called nuclear fuels undergo fission, when struck by fission neutrons, and in turn emit neutrons, when they break apart. This makes possible a peaceful, self-sustaining, moderated (or controlled) nuclear chain reaction that releases energy at a controlled rate in a nuclear reactor. Nuclear fission in a nuclear power plant just produces energy, heat. No smoke! The nuclear fuel becomes other, lighter atoms. A very rapid, uncontrolled, exponential rate of fission of a critical mass of pure metals Uranium 235 or Plutonium being suddenly mechanically compressed in a nuclear weapon, i.e. an atomic bomb - an A-bomb - is physically not possible.
It is suggested that Uranium 235, U235, can be split into two other, lighter atoms, when hit by a neutron, n, and that then two new neutrons and energy are released at high pressure, 100 000 atm and temperature 1 000 000°C. It is called fission. One alternative is U235 + n → Ba140 + Kr94 + 2n. Another is U235 + n → La139 + Mo95 + 2n. It is suggested that the reactions can continue exponentially, the free neutrons n will split more U235 atoms very quickly = the atomic bomb. Plutonium 239, Pl239, may behave similarly. One problem with such a chain reaction is that a neutron is very small compared with an atom, e.g. if the radius of a neutron is of the order 0.000 000 000 000 001 meter and the atom core has same size, then the radius of the atom itself is 0.000 000 000 1 meter. It means that the atom is 100 000 times bigger than its core (electrons are surrounding the core) and that the probability that a neutron will collide with the core and split it is very small. The probability that the neutron will miss the core (that consists of 235 neutrons/protons) and fly away somewhere else is very big. Scientists suggest that if you can arrange a critical mass of U235 or Pl239, of say 30-100 kg (plenty of atoms there to miss) it will explode like an atomic bomb started by some neutrons. What the critical mass is and how to start the chain reaction are national, military secrets for 65 years. Evidently many people believe that fission chain reactions produced by neutrons splitting atom cores are nonsense. It doesn’t work. In spite of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These two Japanese towns were simply destroyed by US standard napalm carpet fire bombing raids early in the mornings in August 1945 followed by magnesium firework bomb producing a big flash over each town. US propaganda created the rest. The atomic bomb was born. More realistically the whole Manhattan project failed and nobody managed to start a chain reaction atomic bomb 1945. Oppenheimer, the chief of the project, never managed to explode anything ... except a magnesium flash bomb. Later US scientists announced that they had managed to produce a thermonuclear fusion bomb – the hydrogen bomb – where light atoms fused to heavier ones in lieu of splitting heavy ones and when energy was also released. Such a bomb could be 750 times stronger than a Hiroshima type atomic bomb, we were told. Imagine that. In operation Ivy the US 1952 allegedly destroyed the little island Elugelab in the northern part of the Enewetak atoll in the Marshall Islands using such a hydrogen bomb. Wikipedia describes it with photos from 1952 before/after the blast. Elugelab allegedly disappeared and a mile wide crater 175’ deep was created.
If you look at the Enewetak atoll using Google maps you’ll find something strange. At big scale the crater is seen at the North part of the atoll but when zooming in the map is Photoshopped and shows something else that does not compare with the 1952 photos. Actually all Google maps/photos of Enewetak islands are very good except the one where the famous crater is supposed to be.
The technical argument is that fast neutron chain reactions are impossible, because the fission cross-section of U-235 is small for fast neutrons. The cross-section is indeed small for high-energy neutrons, which is why reactors use a moderator to slow the neutrons down and increase the likelihood of their capture by the small amounts of U-235 in the nuclear fuel. What is weird is that the people making this argument (nukes exist) don't seem to realize that this is exactly why you use 80-90% enriched material in a bomb - it is to overcome this low probability of fission by just putting a ridiculous number of targets in the area. It is also why there are tampers, neutron reflectors, and the like, and why even a relatively sophisticated weapon like the Fat Man only fissioned something like 13-18% of its fissile material, and the Little Boy bomb only fissioned around 1% of its fissile material.
As for anything to be 'faked' - peeps always say oh no you need these many to know this and these many to know that. Not true. It is done all the time. It is surprisingly easy to fake things with just a small number of people pulling the strings. Just look at Wikipedia where a small number of agents make it a useless info source; or even a few shills on a Forum/Comments can interfere with the logical flow of things. The belief in the myth of fission weapons is my claim here. Anyway, this program is used to raise fear in the world population. Also, a reason to embezzle more money from us (not unlike NASA, stealth technology etc...). Pretty simple. My argument is that fission weapons do not exist. Of course radioactivity exists - in nature...radioactive isotopes for medicine etc....
But weapons that go BOOM - no - mythical creation of those so worried about your well being.
These latest spy docs released on Iran this and Iran that...is a smokescreen ... just to keep the word nuclear in the MSM. The US whipped this program together in 4 yrs in the 40's...and the Iranians have not created one in 10-12 yrs?? C'mon. Intelligence does cross cultural boundaries and I am sure the Iranians would have one by now. They don't because they do not work. Israel does not have any...they do not work. Suitcase size...even more laughable.
Is the sun a "nuclear furnace" as described by modern scientists? Or is it an example of an electric universe?
In the absence of reasonable tests of a hypothesis it is a grave mistake to pretend that issues are settled. Nevertheless, with the support of popular media, a guess about the “nuclear core” of the Sun led to a leap of faith. Limitless energy should be available to humanity by controlling a fusion process—”just like the controlled fusion in the center of the sun.” The cost of this exuberance may never be accurately calculated. Globally, governments poured billions upon billions of dollars into research, seeking to replicate the imagined events hidden inside the Sun. From the 1950s onward it was an easy sell. But the only fusion the experiments provoked lasted a second or so— typically much less than a second—and never produced as much energy as was pumped into the experiments. In physics, that’s the definition of an unworkable idea—and it’s very likely the most expensive failure of theory the world has ever witnessed. In contrasting the two models, one overriding consideration emerges: the failures of the standard model are the predictions of the electric model.
The simplest explanation for the atom is it's comprised of only ONE particle – an Electron/Neutrino, which has two properties. What these two properties are is easy to understand. We just have to look at matter to see that one property is its tendency to clump together and when it doesn't clump together it travels at near light speed. One particle with two properties. The only reason the proton was conceived was to balance the misconceived notion of positive and negative charge (polarity). Polarity in electricity was conceived because of a basic misunderstanding of what a magnet is and how it actually works. The universe and everything in it including all forms of animate an inanimate matter exist because of electrical flows. These electrical flows do not travel from negative to positive they travel in one direction due to a difference in potential. ALL electrical flows are due to potential difference. These potentials can exist across the width of a cell wall or the breadth of a galaxy.
Two ambitious projects in the 1940s brought significant changes to Laurel Canyon. First, Laurel Canyon Boulevard was extended into the San Fernando Valley, providing access to the canyon from both the north and the south. The widened boulevard was now a winding thoroughfare, providing direct access to the West side from the Valley. Traffic, needless to say, increased considerably, which probably worked out well for the planners of the other project, because it meant that the increased traffic brought about by that other project probably wasn’t noticed at all. And that’s good, you see, because the other project was a secret one, so if I tell you about it, you have to promise not to tell anyone else. What would become known as Lookout Mountain Laboratory was originally envisioned as an air defense center. Built in 1941 and nestled in two-and-a-half secluded acres off what is now Wonderland Park Avenue, the installation was hidden from view and surrounded by an electrified fence. By 1947, the facility featured a fully operational movie studio. In fact, it is claimed that it was perhaps the world’s only completely self-contained movie studio. With 100,000 square feet of floor space, the covert studio included sound stages, screening rooms, film processing labs, editing facilities, an animation department, and seventeen climate-controlled film vaults. It also had underground parking, a helicopter pad and a bomb shelter. Over its lifetime, the studio produced some 19,000 classified motion pictures ? more than all the Hollywood studios combined (which I guess makes Laurel Canyon the real ‘motion picture capital of the world’). Officially, the facility was run by the U.S. Air Force and did nothing more nefarious than process AEC footage of atomic and nuclear bomb tests. The studio, however, was clearly equipped to do far more than just process film. There are indications that Lookout Mountain Laboratory had an advanced research and development department that was on the cutting edge of new film technologies. Such technological advances as 3-D effects were apparently first developed at the Laurel Canyon site. And Hollywood luminaries like John Ford, Jimmy Stewart, Howard Hawks, Ronald Reagan, Bing Crosby, Walt Disney and Marilyn Monroe were given clearance to work at the facility on undisclosed projects. There is no indication that any of them ever spoke of their work at the clandestine studio. The facility retained as many as 250 producers, directors, technicians, editors, animators, etc., both civilian and military, all with top security clearances ? and all reporting to work in a secluded corner of Laurel Canyon. Accounts vary as to when the facility ceased operations. Some claim it was in 1969, while others say the installation remained in operation longer. In any event, by all accounts the secret bunker had been up and running for more than twenty years before Laurel Canyon’s rebellious teen years, and it remained operational for the most turbulent of those years.
The existence of the facility remained unknown to the general public until the early 1990s, though it had long been rumored that the CIA operated a secret movie studio somewhere in or near Hollywood. Filmmaker Peter Kuran was the first to learn of its existence, through classified documents he obtained while researching his 1995 documentary, “Trinity and Beyond.” And yet even today, some 15 years after its public disclosure, one would have trouble finding even a single mention of this secret military/intelligence facility anywhere in the ‘conspiracy’ literature.
To convince yourself that USA hasn’t invented and has never used the atomic bomb as announced by President Truman in August 1945 and that an atomic bomb does not work at all, you should read the book “The Last Train from Hiroshima: the survivors look back” by the American writer Charles Pellegrino, 2010. Charles has 60 years later interviewed (?) survivors from the alleged atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and produced a fantasy product. Some survivors from Hiroshima actually took a train from Hiroshima to Nagasaki also to survive there according Charles. A train Hiroshima-Nagasaki 1945? To go by train from Hiroshima to Nagasaki 1945 you had to take a local train to Shimonoseki, then the ferry to Kitakuyushu, another local train to Fukuoka and a third local train to Nagasaki. Not easy even if USA had forgotten to bomb the railway bridges in Japan 1944/5, which would have stopped all land transport and the war then. Most Japanese ships on the other hand were already sunk in December 1943 (and the war was lost), so to go by ship or ferry 1945 was not easy. Can we trust the surviving witnesses? Can we trust Pellegrino? Or is it just another Hollywood 911 fantasy? The last train!!! Very Hollywood. According Pellegrino an atomic uranium bomb exploded over Hiroshima at 08.14 hrs on August 6, 1945. It was ignited using cordite in some strange arrangement. During some nanoseconds a charge of some kilograms of refined uranium 235 thus “exploded” above the town and released energy equivalent to 12000 tons TNT in the form of one single heat and pressure wave that advanced at 700 m/s. As the Hiroshima Ground Zero was about 7 000 meters in diameter, 38.5 square kilometers of Hiroshima disappeared or was flattened in about 5-6 seconds by the atomic bomb (according Pellegrino). Of course survivors (??) just below the atomic bomb impact tell us a completely different story. They not only saw the “bomb” dropping in a parachute and observed the blue (or red or yellow) FLASH and heard the explosion, so they could take cover (earthquake style) in order to first survive and later go looking for family members, friends, etc, etc. The steel bridges over the rivers at Hiroshima were generally intact and … the trains were running! A lot of burnt people with ‘crocodile skin’ and burnt trams and trucks were seen in the streets. Why were they just burnt and not vaporized or blown away by the pressure/heat wave of the atomic bomb?
It is more probable that central Hiroshima (a mainly residential area of wooden houses with straw floors and paper walls and no heavy industry) 6 August (and Nagasaki 9 August) was destroyed, i.e. burnt down by a US standard napalm carpet bombing attack (99 previous such attacks are recorded + plenty of ‘crocodiles’ (burnt people) in Japan just prior) by say 500 B29s during the night between say 03 and 05 hrs. To be able to find some ‘witnesses’ of something else (the atomic bomb!) a big magnesium bomb was exploded over Hiroshima at 08.14 hrs so dazed witnesses/survivors could be produced and tell about a sudden FLASH and a mushroom ash cloud. The real destruction that took place hours earlier using napalm had to be forgotten.
If an atomic bomb could actually explode in the atmosphere, it would just produce a pure FLASH of clean energy with no dirty MUSHROOM CLOUD of any sort. Only conventional explosives, e.g. TNT (or magnesium) burning oxygen produce a dirty MUSHROOM cloud of smoke and dust and ashes. Intelligent people should also know that an instantaneous chain reaction (during nanoseconds) of all uranium atoms in a big piece of uranium 235 started by one neutron cutting one uranium atom into two and releasing two free neutrons that immediately cut two other uranium atoms, etc, etc, is impossible. Uranium can only be split in an atomic reactor of a power station (like Fukushima) with no smoke or dust released (just energy/heat). If you lose control of that reaction, due to too many neutrons released and/or lack of cooling water, the temperature will just rise slowly, steam will be released and the uranium will melt and drop through the bottom of the reactor chamber. No automatic, super fast chain/bomb reaction will start. The Pellegrino fantasies are hilarious. We are told that US scientists dropped letters to Japanese scientists at Hiroshima at the same time as the bomb is dropped … and that the letters were picked up on ground (zero!) and delivered to the right people! It sounds like Atta’s passport being picked up in NY on 911! I assume President Truman actually believed that USA possessed and used two atomic bombs 1945 and fooled himself and everybody by announcing the lie. The only reason was apparently to give Japan a chance to capitulate at once and allow USA to occupy Japan. Because USSR led by Stalin was ready to attack (and occupy) Japan from the back on August 11 with 2 million soldiers, 10 000 T34 tanks and 4000 war planes and ships just relocated from defeated Germany. So concerned parties agreed USA had an atomic bomb, Japan gave up and USSR was denied anymore territory - Japan.
The Pellegrino book is written in the style of a Hollywood movie. Big action at beginning, clever people surviving and moving around bravely below exploding atomic bombs, then more action, blah, blah, and 60 years later the brave people remember the horrors of the past. But the trains are still moving in/out of Hiroshima. The last train was just an early 911 lie.
Yokohama was destroyed more than Hiroshima in a low carpet/napalm bombing attack in May 1945 that lasted 45 minutes! Pictures of the Yokohama destruction from Motomachi to Yokohama station on to Kawasaki look like Hiroshima. So maybe Hiroshima was just one, big magnesium bomb causing a flash + a quick Yokohama style bombing? Same at Nagasaki, where destruction on the ground was quite limited.
Nuclear weaponry is a simplistic anagram of Unclear weaponry. Here are the weak "facts" poured out every time the nuclear threat is mentioned, all part of a story that remains unclear and unconvincing for 65 years:
1. Number of victims; it ranges wildly between 100,000 (or less) and 200,000 people
2. Type of death from A-Bomb; descriptions range from "200,000 killed instantly" to fewer killed instantly and "many more from A-Bomb radiation" to "140,000 total dead by the end of 1945"
3. What precisely "A-Bomb Radiation" actually is, since no bomb of specifically the type claimed to have been used on Hiroshima has been claimed to have been used again, yet diagnoses remain as "consequences of A-Bomb Radiation" rather than specific radiation issues
4. Who died; thousands of slaves from Korea and China are said to have been among the official victims, though it is not mentioned what percentage of what figure or any specific numbers
5. Where the bodies went; although a full 200,000 are said to have "vaporized" in certain figures, there is no explanation for the stories that claim less than 200,000 died by "heat rays" - where did the diagnosed and ill go then? There are plenty of trinkets in the official story about where bodies were hidden or remains buried, yet many are suspect. And if they are all suspect, the entire story is rather wobbly. Among the ironic places was a miraculously surviving Red Cross building (we have already learned a little about the weird history of the Red Cross) and the trenches of the river, neither of which would have been accessible to the public view in a core military base such as Hiroshima. Furthermore, if radiation was being diagnosed, why would people be treated within Hiroshima? Wouldn't you want to evacuate the town as soon as possible? (Although there are problems with the story of the barracks outside Hiroshima, which were conveniently wiped away by nothing less than a story about a typhoon known as Makurazaki.)
6. Evidence of non-fire based heat; most pieces look like they were melted under extreme fire conditions or sometimes they appear glued together, but only extremely official documentation could allow you to remove objects from their official areas and scientifically examine them. Science being blocked.
7. Why no resistance? The official story on all sides is that 3 airplanes flew officially to drop the bomb: 1.Enola Gay, 2.'Observation Equipment' plane, 3.'Photographic Equipment' plane - yet, not a single Japanese fighter was guarding the troop organization headquarters: Hiroshima city.
8. What did the explosion look like? Stories range wildly from nothing but visible darkness to nothing but shining blinding light and everything in between. Within this all-encompassing range of visual descriptions, there is not a story that could be doubted, except perhaps that nothing happened at all.
9. Where did the bomb detonate? The current official story is that it blew up 600 meters above the Industrial Promotion Hall, which - like the A-Bomb explosion video - resembles a dome. Other stories mention Shima Hospital, but given 600 meters is so far above the Earth, one could argue that it was above both at the same time. Indeed, at such a distance, it doesn't matter where the bomb actually was.
10. Why were there so many dummy bombs? Dummy A-Bombs nicknamed 'pumpkins' were dropped on dozens of cities along Japan's southeastern coast between July 20 and August 14, 1945 apparently killing/injuring over 1,000.
11. Who were the A-Bomb orphans? Again, the figure waves about between 2,000 and 6,500 - a significant confusion.
12. Why was Hiroshima targeted for demolition work just before the "A-Bomb" strike? In 1943, the National Government targeted 133 locations for demolition to create "firebreaks" and most of the workers for this dirty job were "killed instantly" according to the official story, since they were working on demolishing buildings in Hiroshima at the time of the strike at 8:15 in the morning.
13. Why does the mayor of Hiroshima know what happened more than any scientist? Takeshi Araki – the mayor of Hiroshima – writes frequently to ambassadors of all sorts of countries, urging them to consider the 'A-Bomb' disaster again and again, using language that describes the official flawed story as scientific fact – thus offering frequent reminders in propagandist terms of what is still an unclear event. Furthermore, it cements in the minds of each new generation of politicians the false idea that we know the Nuke actually exists.
14. Why is radiation still so mysterious, and why can anything get diagnosed as radiation? The emergency ABCC (Atom Bomb Casualty Commission) did not provide treatment for any sort of radiation problems. Instead, they simply diagnosed radiation, and sent people on their way. This commission was renamed RERF (Radiation Research) and for some reason, is highly connected to the A-Bomb Survivors Relief Association established in Seoul, Korea in 1967.
15. Despite a growing populist resistance movement within Japan in the years running up to, during and after the war, why did the British censor the Japanese press after the A-Bomb strike? The official British-enforced press code was established in September, 1945. In this code a few weeks after the "A-Bomb" story was getting spread, artists and journalists faced severe prosecution for reporting anything outside the approval of the British conquerors. Strict censorship has been enforced on the A-Bomb issue since. Hiroshima museum declares that the “psychological pressure on authors was immense.”
16. Why was the A-Bomb given the Religious name "project Trinity" and why are its remains given the "holy relic" status of fictional element "trinitite"?
17. Why was half of Japan militarily cut off from its citizenry before the "A-Bomb" strikes? In early 1945, the mainland was split by military forces along the Suzuka Mountain Range (“in anticipation of the country being divided”) At this time, the 2nd General Army HQ was Hiroshima itself.
18. What were the consequences of radiation? People from the area with cancer do not seem to have rates exceeding normal amounts of cancer throughout southern Japan, and still others were diagnosed with radiation for all manner of mutation, burns, cuts, scrapes, bruises and gross-looking tumors. 65 years later, the grass is growing fine.
So from the Japanese perspective; were they better off as it was written, or under the USSR?
_________________ "Now water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend." - Bruce Lee
"Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth." - Buddha
Joined: 01 Jan 2012 Posts: 106 Location: 7he he4RT
Posted: Sat Mar 14, 2015 12:12 am Post subject:
EVEN IF there was no atomic bomb ... Tesla developed an electric beam weapon hundreds of times more powerful than the destruction in hiroshima or nagasaki.
I may not know everything about nuclear physics but in my family have an electronic/computer/areospace physicist from whom i had several conversations ... as a child i would go down to our celler filled with components like diodes, capacitors, resistors, amplifiers, etc and play around soldering pieces together for fun.
Tesla-s electrical weapon is REAL I-m very sure and many scientists suggest it caused the Tanguska blast in Russia.
Also Ive read of Russia-s Tsar bomb.
Also I read Lise Meitner-s Atomic formulas, later Oppenheimer and Einstein would take credit for.
Its highly unlikely NUCLEAR BOMBS dont exist
as for the crackhead A.D.D reasoning that they dont exist cause they havent been used ... they havent been used cause some 22 countries now have nukes, the one to use them would suffer whore/i/bull retribution.
BUTT Russia HAS used nukes frequently in construction projects like dam building and USA originally planned to use nukes to make the Panama Canal.
In summary I not only BELIEVE NUKES EXIST but I strongly advocate their application in population reduction as a solution to evironmental ills.
The nuclear conference in San Luis Obisbo revealed scientists lied about fallout factors cause they didnt want the blood of billions on their conscience, so they exagerated fallout factors to make use on bombs seem impossible.
Since then Fukushima has released thousands of times as much radiation
and types of radiation much more harmful than bombs release. _________________ 7 h e 7 r u t h 4 u t h o r - 1 9 7 4
Joined: 01 Jan 2012 Posts: 106 Location: 7he he4RT
Posted: Sat Mar 14, 2015 12:14 am Post subject:
Suitcase Bombs in America:
Is Russia still a threat?
I remembered hearing a story in Canada about 4 years ago that Russian (or Chinese) sleeper-agents had been identified in Canada by CSIS … when the government proceeded to expel them there was a cry from left-wing activists saying: “They had assimilated into Canadian society and should be left alone”. Interestingly I recently have been exposed to information that long ago the Russians hid nukes inside NATO countries (including perhaps Canada) where sleeper agents could later dig them up and deliver them to targets. I could not find that story but found several similar references.
1- Russia is known to have created around 200 suitcase bombs - nuclear weapons the size of suitcases. According to a Soviet defector called Aleksander Lebed it has seemingly lost track of more than 100 - each of which could kill more than 50,000 people (depending on where detonated). Many of these bombs were distributed and hidden in present day hostile countries. Possibly the worst effect of a terrorist nuclear device would be that it could in fact trigger a nuclear war. If America thought Russia or an enemy country had used nuclear weapons against it, it would not hesitate to retaliate... so one small nuclear device could in fact trigger events that would kill millions.
3- At a 25 January 2000 congressional hearing held in Los Angeles, California, a former Russian military intelligence officer repeated allegations that Soviet agents had hidden small atomic demolition munitions (ADMs) [sometimes referred to as 'nuclear suitcases'] at sites in the United States. Colonel Stanislav Lunev, who defected to the United States and is now in the federal witness protection program, wore a black bag over his face at the hearing and used an electronic device to disguise his voice.
4- For decades, the CIA, the Pentagon and other government agencies responsible for America’s security kicked around the idea that the Soviet Union would try to smuggle nukes into the U.S. But the thought of such a diabolical plan carried out, even by the “Evil Empire,” was largely dismissed as, as far from reality as a plot from a James Bond novel.
By the mid 90’s however, a series of events began to change the tone in Washington. Skepticism was replaced by the realization that indeed the Soviets may have placed suitcase size nuclear weapons in strategic locations throughout the U.S.
The controversy began in earnest in May 1997 during a closed meeting between a delegation from the congressional Military Research and Development Committee and former Russian Security Council Secretary Aleksandr Lebed.
5- Osama Bin Laden acquired nukes in 1996 and after from the Russians and other sources. He is hiding these nukes in America. This is what is being spread by certain parts of the right wing media in America. The biggest question now is if these reports are really true where are those nukes. The same right wing media few months back spread rumors that Iranians have developed technology to create massive explosions in the space to destabilize the satellite networks of America and thus bring US technology infrastructure to its knees.
How many nuclear weapons are there on earth ?
There are more than 60,000, distributed as follows:
Russian Nuclear Weapons Hidden in USA During 'Cold War' – Al-Qaeda # 2 man Ayman al-Zawahiri reported to be ex-KGB; he may know exactly where Soviet nuclear suitcase weapons are hidden in U.S. cities
“The poisoning of former KGB/FSB official Alexander Litvinenko should serve as a wake up call to Americans. The first question: What does Alexander Litvinenko have to do with the possibility of a nuclear weapon being detonated on American soil, the former KGB agent once voiced the following enlightening comments:
"When Putin spoke on the anniversary of the founding of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (CheKa, 1917) on December twenty, he began his address to his colleagues with a reference to the way former KGB personnel had pretended to be politicians, infiltrated the leadership of the country, and seized power." Said another way, it seems that Litvinenko was alluding to the idea that the KGB had become a powerful entity unto itself. And corruption in Russia (former Soviet Union) is something that the rest of the world, United States included, should be very concerned about.
Ayman al-Zawahiri reported to be ex-KGB
Litvinenko also offered the world another rather frightening revelation while he was alive. In sum, he was the guy that fingered Ayman al-Zawahiri as a former and longtime KGB/FSB agent. And in case you weren't aware - in other words, in case you've been living in a box - Ayman al-Zawahiri is the number two man in al-Qaeda behind Osama bin-Laden.
Before collaborating with al-Qaeda, al-Zawahiri was the second and last "emir" of Egyptian Islamic Jihad. Further, he was the leader responsible for, in essence, leading the Egyptian Islamic Jihad into al-Qaeda.
Thus, it seems that we have reports from someone in the know that the KGB (currently the FSB) is corrupt. However, the fact that this corrupt unit has ties to Ayman al-Zawahiri is perhaps a little too much to bare, considering that Osama Bin Laden is reported to be plotting nuclear attacks on U.S. cities.
Murder in a Teapot
On January 26th, ABC News reportedly published "Murder in a Teapot". In sum, this is what was reportedly said regarding Alexander Litvinenko's mysterious death (yes, the same guy that said the KGB was corrupt and fingered al-Zawahiri as a former KGB agent). Radioactive Polonium-210 was placed in a teapot and this tea made it to Litvinenko as he met with some Russian buddies of his.
In accordance with this, British officials told ABC News that Litvinenko's "murder was a state sponsored assassination orchestrated by the Russian security services." They came to this conclusion based on "forensic evidence and intelligence reports. . ." Andrei Lugovoi has now been charged with the murder.
It does if the businessman was affiliated with the KGB until 1996 (ninth department of the KGB - a bodyguard unit). Though he denies the murder and having ever been in the FSB, a former employer named Badri Patarkatsishvili had the following to say. "There is no such thing as a former KGB agent."
Israeli Nuclear Weapons
One other purpose of Israeli nuclear weapons, not often stated, but obvious, is their "use" on the United States. America does not want Israel's nuclear profile raised. They have been used in the past to ensure America does not desert Israel under increased Arab, or oil embargo, pressure and have forced the United States to support Israel diplomatically against the Soviet Union. Israel used their existence to guarantee a continuing supply of American conventional weapons, a policy likely to continue
All Russia’s citizens are trained in how to survive nuclear attacks. Cities have large bomb shelters, unlike in America. There are comprehensive evacuation plans. Food is stored in reserve for the aftermath of an attack. Russia is much better equipped to survive a nuclear war than America. Russia spends around 50 times more than America per person per year on preparing for a nuclear attack.
America must Fall from Within:
A TV documentary I watched in Canada (about 2006 “The Passionate Eye” … from memory) interviewed ex-president Mikael Gorbachev. Gorbachev brought in glasnost/perestroika (friendship with NATO) and before he became president was very high up in Russian intelligence. Gorbachev revealed that during the cold-war era (1950s-1960s) that the Soviets poured hundreds of millions of dollars into creating dissent inside America. Many left-wing, counter-culture, and activist groups from the Free Speech Movement in Berkley to the entertainment industry (music and film) received graft from America’s deadliest enemy in an attempt to break America from within … especially the family unit (in the words of Nikita Khrushchev). Khrushchev said “If we can break the American family the nation will fall”. It is alleged that the KGB began to control illegal drugs inside America to fund their propaganda operation … it is said that this became so profitable for the KGB that the CIA stepped in and took over the Opium supply by taking Vietnam. The CIA is blamed to this day for drug running but few stop to think that they were forced to do so because so much American money was flowing into Russia.
Gorbachev Russian President from March 1985 - August 1991
Addendum 1: more recently amongst counter-culture (spirituality) groups it is “The Illuminati” who is blamed for hiding suitcase-bombs in America (and plans for martial law) not the Russians. Many of these people who complain that America is heading towards totalitarianism are likely responsible for it by putting so much drug money in the hands of foreign enemies (Russia, Mexico, Columbia, Etc.). In the 1970s those “peace activists” were smoking hashish produced in the Beqaa Valley by groups we know today as militias like the Hezbollah … putting American dollars in the hands of arms dealers in the name of peace. This peace movement was largely funded by the Russian Intelligence operation Gorbachev spoke of in the above mentioned interview.
Addendum 2: If the above alleged info is true then I agree that it is possible that the USA has been yielding to threats of atomic blackmail.
That what conspiracy theorists call the “9-11 Conspiracy” would have been in response to Russia’s threats to detonate suitcase bombs inside America if thier demands were not met. 9-11 may have been orchestrated by bush and the cia but deemed necessary by Intel to give the west the propaganda power needed to stand up to these threats. Effectively surrounding Russia.
It would be necessary to keep all of this a classified secret from the American public to prevent panic.
I think that Bush and the CIA put America on what is obviously an irreversible path to war with the east.
To attempt to reverse that path spells doom for America England Canada and the allies in surrounding Russia.
You cant slap someone in the face and then come back and say let's make up. they will use your weakness against you.
Obama is in danger of killing us all and the concept of a free market with us.
I believe that Russia hates the children of the Queen of England and Obama is only half son of Anglo.
Does he understand the gravity of the situation?
He got elected partly so Left wing Americans could prove they are not racists.
There is nothing to prove here. England enslaved blacks, America set them free as a result of the freedom people came here for.
I don’t believe that OIL was the reason to [perpetrate 9-11] to get into Iraq.
I believe the military tactical advantage against Iran and Russia [China] is the reason to be there.
Obama says he wants to close Guantanamo
but now cant figure how to do it
he will find this out with most of the changes he promised
hopefully sooner than later.
Torture is part of the Intel game, an alternative to holding them in Guantanamo would have been to put then in a middle eastern country, tag them all with microchips, then allow them to escape [as happened in Kandahar on 14 Jun 2008], then the tagged subjects can be tracked back to their leaders so the cells can be tagged for extermination or to track their leaders [via satellite] and get deeper Intel into Pakistan and Russia.
there is no good or bad ... or legal or illegal in Intel operations, and i think the president [and the people] should stay out of their methodologies and only oversee purpose and results.
remember "the other guy" [ha satan = the adversary] doesn’t observe any restrictions. and the "underdog" will stoop to lower levels constantly testing the abilities and talents of our agencies.
ever play chess and LET the other guy get ahead or catch up ... and then loose, crappy plan if your life depends on it!
if sources are correct then 9-11 was in response to Russian-suitcase-bomb-threat, giving it an excuse to go into Afghanistan and countries that are close enough to strike russia.
the CIA running drugs was in response to the drug culture buying drugs from KGB run operations and putting hundreds of millions in the pockets of the enemy.
accept and understand responsibility for the present situation. _________________ 7 h e 7 r u t h 4 u t h o r - 1 9 7 4
Napalm was as new as the mythical 'fission' weapon.
Fire-bombed with Napalm Nagoya
Fire-bombed with Napalm Kobe
Fire-bombed with Napalm Shizuoka
Fire-bombed with Napalm Osaka
Look at any Hiroshima picture after the fire bombing and notice how ALL the streets are clear of debris. Huh? Everything wood just burned - top to bottom, there was no blast wave interfering with the street geometry patterns.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki after being fire bombed with Napalm
1945 Hiroshima overcrowded wood-frame city area (this area was just outside the
firestorm perimeter, so it survived intact apart from broken windows)
It was only after the war that the American public learned about Japan's efforts to bring the conflict to an end. Chicago Tribune reporter Walter Trohan, for example, was obliged by wartime censorship to withhold for seven months one of the most important stories of the war.
In an article that finally appeared August 19, 1945, on the front pages of the Chicago Tribune and the Washington Times-Herald, Trohan revealed that on January 20, 1945, two days prior to his departure for the Yalta meeting with Stalin and Churchill, President Roosevelt received a 40-page memorandum from General Douglas MacArthur outlining five separate surrender overtures from high-level Japanese officials. (The complete text of Trohan's article is in the Winter 1985-86 Journal, pp. 508-512.)
This memo showed that the Japanese were offering surrender terms virtually identical to the ones ultimately accepted by the Americans at the formal surrender ceremony on September 2 -- that is, complete surrender of everything but the person of the Emperor. Specifically, the terms of these peace overtures included:
* Complete surrender of all Japanese forces and arms, at home, on island possessions, and in occupied countries.
* Occupation of Japan and its possessions by Allied troops under American direction.
* Japanese relinquishment of all territory seized during the war, as well as Manchuria, Korea and Taiwan.
* Regulation of Japanese industry to halt production of any weapons and other tools of war.
* Release of all prisoners of war and internees.
* Surrender of designated war criminals.
Is this memorandum authentic? It was supposedly leaked to Trohan by Admiral William D. Leahy, presidential Chief of Staff. (See: M. Rothbard in A. Goddard, ed., Harry Elmer Barnes: Learned Crusader , pp. 327f.) Historian Harry Elmer Barnes has related (in "Hiroshima: Assault on a Beaten Foe," National Review, May 10, 1958):
The authenticity of the Trohan article was never challenged by the White House or the State Department, and for very good reason. After General MacArthur returned from Korea in 1951, his neighbor in the Waldorf Towers, former President Herbert Hoover, took the Trohan article to General MacArthur and the latter confirmed its accuracy in every detail and without qualification. In January 1945 — two days before Franklin Roosevelt was to meet with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in Yalta — the Japanese were offering surrender terms almost identical to what was accepted by the Americans on the USS Missouri in the Japan Bay on September 2, 1945. Napalm was new. The firebombing of Tokyo marked the first time it was used on a dense civilian population. The Americans wanted to assay their new inventions on a group of people who they thought were less than human. In April and May 1945, Japan made three attempts through neutral Sweden and Portugal to bring the war to a peaceful end. On April 7, acting Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu met with Swedish ambassador Widon Bagge in Tokyo, asking him "to ascertain what peace terms the United States and Britain had in mind." But he emphasized that unconditional surrender was unacceptable, and that "the Emperor must not be touched." Bagge relayed the message to the United States, but Secretary of State Stettinius told the US Ambassador in Sweden to "show no interest or take any initiative in pursuit of the matter." Similar Japanese peace signals through Portugal, on May 7, and again through Sweden, on the 10th, proved similarly fruitless. By mid-June, six members of Japan's Supreme War Council had secretly charged Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo with the task of approaching Soviet Russia's leaders "with a view to terminating the war if possible by September." On June 22 the Emperor called a meeting of the Supreme War Council, which included the Prime Minister, the Foreign Minister, and the leading military figures. "We have heard enough of this determination of yours to fight to the last soldiers," said Emperor Hirohito. "We wish that you, leaders of Japan, will strive now to study the ways and the means to conclude the war. In doing so, try not to be bound by the decisions you have made in the past."
By early July the US had intercepted messages from Togo to the Japanese ambassador in Moscow, Naotake Sato, showing that the Emperor himself was taking a personal hand in the peace effort, and had directed that the Soviet Union be asked to help end the war. US officials also knew that the key obstacle to ending the war was American insistence on "unconditional surrender," a demand that precluded any negotiations. The Japanese were willing to accept nearly everything, except turning over their semi-divine Emperor. Heir of a 2,600-year-old dynasty, Hirohito was regarded by his people as a "living god" who personified the nation. (Until the August 15 radio broadcast of his surrender announcement, the Japanese people had never heard his voice.) Japanese particularly feared that the Americans would humiliate the Emperor, and even execute him as a war criminal. On July 12, Hirohito summoned Fumimaro Konoye, who had served as prime minister in 1940-41. Explaining that "it will be necessary to terminate the war without delay," the Emperor said that he wished Konoye to secure peace with the Americans and British through the Soviets. As Prince Konoye later recalled, the Emperor instructed him "to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity." The next day, July 13, Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo wired ambassador Naotake Sato in Moscow: "See [Soviet foreign minister] Molotov before his departure for Potsdam ... Convey His Majesty's strong desire to secure a termination of the war ... Unconditional surrender is the only obstacle to peace ..." On July 17, another intercepted Japanese message revealed that although Japan's leaders felt that the unconditional surrender formula involved an unacceptable dishonor, they were convinced that "the demands of the times" made Soviet mediation to terminate the war absolutely essential. Further diplomatic messages indicated that the only condition asked by the Japanese was preservation of "our form of government." The only "difficult point," a July 25 message disclosed, "is the ... formality of unconditional surrender." Summarizing the messages between Togo and Sato, US naval intelligence said that Japan's leaders, "though still balking at the term unconditional surrender," recognized that the war was lost, and had reached the point where they have "no objection to the restoration of peace on the basis of the  Atlantic Charter." These messages, said Assistant Secretary of the Navy Lewis Strauss, "indeed stipulated only that the integrity of the Japanese Royal Family be preserved."
Navy Secretary James Forrestal termed the intercepted messages "real evidence of a Japanese desire to get out of the war." "With the interception of these messages," notes historian Alperovitz (p. 177), "there could no longer be any real doubt as to the Japanese intentions; the maneuvers were overt and explicit and, most of all, official acts. Koichi Kido, Japan's Lord Privy Seal and a close advisor to the Emperor, later affirmed: "Our decision to seek a way out of this war, was made in early June before any atomic bomb had been dropped and Russia had not entered the war. It was already our decision."
In spite of this, on July 26 the leaders of the United States and Britain issued the Potsdam declaration, which included this grim ultimatum: "We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces and to provide proper and adequate assurance of good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction." Commenting on this draconian either-or proclamation, British historian J.F.C. Fuller wrote: "Not a word was said about the Emperor, because it would be unacceptable to the propaganda-fed American masses." (A Military History of the Western World , p. 675.) America's leaders understood Japan's desperate position: the Japanese were willing to end the war on any terms, as long as the Emperor was not molested. If the US leadership had not insisted on unconditional surrender -- that is, if they had made clear a willingness to permit the Emperor to remain in place -- the Japanese very likely would have surrendered immediately, thus saving many thousands of lives.
The sad irony is that, as it actually turned out, the American leaders decided anyway to retain the Emperor as a symbol of authority and continuity. They realized, correctly, that Hirohito was useful as a figurehead prop for their own occupation authority in postwar Japan.
Assuming fission weapons are, and always have been a myth:
President Truman steadfastly defended his use of the atomic bomb, claiming that it "saved millions of lives" by bringing the war to a quick end. Justifying his decision, he went so far as to declare: "The world will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base. That was because we wished in this first attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of civilians."
This was a preposterous statement. In fact, almost all of the victims were civilians, and the United States Strategic Bombing Survey (issued in 1946) stated in its official report: "Hiroshima and Nagasaki were chosen as targets because of their concentration of activities and population." If the atomic bomb was dropped to impress the Japanese leaders with the immense destructive power of a new weapon, this could have been accomplished by deploying it on an isolated military base. It was not necessary to destroy a large city. And whatever the justification for the Hiroshima blast, it is much more difficult to defend the second bombing of Nagasaki.
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