One of my research interests is radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, especially interpreting remote sounding of the earth’s atmosphere and surface from satellites. Such data, appropriately analyzed, may provide one of our most effective ways to monitor and study global change on the earth. The hardest part is trying to influence the nature of the measurements obtained, so that the key information can be obtained.
Pretty much sums it all up, I daresay. _________________ The grand design, reflected in the face of Chaos.
Posted by: JeffMasters, 2:43 PM GMT en Enero 18, 2011
December 2010 was the globe's 17th warmest December on record, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies rated December 2010 the 11th warmest December on record. December 2010 global ocean temperatures were the 10th warmest on record, and land temperatures were the 30th warmest on record. Global satellite-measured temperatures for the lowest 8 km of the atmosphere were the 7th warmest on record, according to both Remote Sensing Systems and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH). The global cool-down from November, which was the warmest November on record for the globe, was due in large part to the on-going moderate strength La Niña episode in the Eastern Pacific. The large amount of cold water that upwells to the surface during a La Niña typically causes a substantial cool-down in global temperatures. Still, December 2010 temperatures were warm enough to make 2010 tied with 2005 as Earth's warmest year in history, as I reported in yesterday's post.
For those interested, NCDC has a page of notable weather highlights from December 2010.
Figure 1. Departure of temperature from average for December 2010. Eastern Canada and Greenland were very warm, relative to average, and much of Siberia and Europe were abnormally cold. Image credit: National Climatic Data Center (NCDC).
An average December for the U.S.
For the contiguous U.S., December was near-average in temperature, ranking as the 44th coldest December in the 116-year record, according to the National Climatic Data Center. The year 2010 was the 23rd warmest on record. A strong "Arctic Oscillation" pattern allowed cold air to spill southward over the Southeast U.S., resulting in the coldest December on record in Florida and Georgia. Nine other states in the Southeast U.S. had top-ten coldest Decembers. Five states in the Southwest U.S. had top-ten warmest Decembers. A series of major snowstorms brought the 7th-largest December snow cover to the U.S. as a whole. December 2010 precipitation in the contiguous U.S. was also near average, ranking 54th driest in the 116-year record. Montana and Utah had their wettest Decembers on record, and six other states had top-ten wettest Decembers--Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Maine, and California. Six states had top-ten driest Decembers--Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas, Kansas, and Delaware.
La Niña in the "moderate" to "strong" category
The equatorial Eastern Pacific Ocean is currently experiencing moderate to strong La Niña conditions. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the tropical Eastern Pacific in the area 5°N - 5°S, 120°W - 170°W, also called the "Niña 3.4 region", were 1.5°C below average as of January 10, according to NOAA. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology put this number at 1.45°C below average (as of January 9.) Moderate La Niña conditions are defined as occurring when this number is 1.0°C - 1.5°C below average. Temperatures colder than 1.5°C below average qualify as strong La Niña conditions. NOAA is maintaining its La Niña advisory, and expects La Niña conditions to last through through spring.
Both El Niño and La Niña events have major impacts on regional and global weather patterns. La Niña typically causes warm, dry winters over the southern portion of the U.S., with cooler and wetter than average conditions over the Pacific Northwest. The Ohio and Mississippi Valleys states typically have wetter winters than usual during La Niña events.
December 2010 Arctic sea ice extent lowest on record
Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent in December 2010 was the lowest in the 31-year satellite record, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Ice volume in December was also the lowest on record for this time of year, according to University of Washington Polar Ice Center. At the end of December, the eastern portion of Canada's Hudson Bay remained unfrozen, the first time in recorded history that Hudson Bay has not been completely frozen over at the end of the year. The unusual amount of open water led to temperatures that averaged 20°C (36°F) above normal over a region larger than Texas during the first ten days of January.
German subsidies for solar-power will be reduced by as much as 15 percent from July 1, after the government won industry agreement on the need for tariff cuts in the world’s biggest market for photovoltaic panels.
The tariffs, which guarantee above-market rates for solar power, will be lowered by as much as 15 percent for roof-based panels depending on the volume of installations in March, April and May this year, Environment Minister Norbert Roettgen said. Cuts for ground-based systems will come in on Sept. 1, he said.
“In the interests of power users in Germany, solar energy must be cost-efficient and adjusted to market price developments,” Roettgen told reporters at a briefing in Berlin today attended by Guenther Cramer, the head of Germany’s BSW solar industry association. “A solar market that grows too quick and over-heats would push up power costs.”
Chancellor Angela Merkel’s government is paring subsidies because solar-panel prices have fallen by as much as 40 percent, leading to a glut on the German market. Germany may have installed 8 megawatts to 9 gigawatts in new solar capacity this year, accounting for more than half the world’s market, Bloomberg New Energy Finance estimates from Jan. 12 show.
The Environment Ministry said the allowance reductions will be brought forward to July 1 from Jan. 1, 2012, with cuts of as much as 15 percent if forecast solar panel electrical output exceeds 7,500 megawatts.
Germany pegged subsidies last year on an assumption new solar capacity would grow by 5,000 megawatts. It actually grew by some 7,000 megawatts, equal to 6 new medium-sized conventional electricity plants, Roettgen said. That’s why the country had to speed up reducing subsidies, he said.
The new capacity installed “is an expression of the success of solar power in Germany,” he said.
Now when the "Team" claim that the "trick" was legit and that the reasons for it were explained in the peer-reviewed literature, they can be asked about the "preceding" data removal. _________________ The grand design, reflected in the face of Chaos.
As I write this, it is pouring down in what should be the hottest month of the year up here.
Something is very wrong out here. Up north (where I live) it is raining torrentially and it is predicited to continue for many more weeks', perhaps a month.
But the BKK Post says that we, in the NE are in a drought.
You have to love these urbanite twits on 100,000 baht a week.
Torential rain, rising waters down South
Published: 29/03/2011 at 04:14 PM
Online news: Economics
There was no let up to the heavy rain and associated flooding across southern Thailand on Tuesday, disrupting transport, tourism and day-to-day business.
The National Disaster Warning Centre forecast is for more heavy rain through Thusday or Friday.
The centre warned people in Satun, Trang, Krabi, Phuket, Phang Nga, Ranong, Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala, Songkhla, Phatthalung, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Surat Thani and Chumphon of the danger of forest run-off and landslides.
Authorities in Koh Samui has started evacuating people to temples on high ground after heavy rains caused flash floods that destroyed roads and disrupted communications.
Just looking back to the 1970's, you will find similar weather patterns that predominated at that time. What goes around, comes back around. It is the boomerang principle of climate cycles.
btw most of the climate models cannot reproduce the multi-decadal cycles (often due to the overactive CO2 effect parameter forced into them) but they are used to "predict" future conditions, centuries ahead... _________________ The grand design, reflected in the face of Chaos.
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