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bri



Joined: 16 Jun 2006
Posts: 3185
Location: Capacious Creek

PostPosted: Fri May 08, 2009 12:20 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sun Goes Out For A Few Seconds
Quote:
TUCSON, AZ—Officials at the Kitt Peak National Observatory are saying that, while the short period of utter darkness and intense cold was distressing, there is "no immediate cause for alarm" over the sun's six-second outage Monday. "We're not sure what caused our sun, which is in essence a self-sustaining fusion reaction, to defy science and just go out for a moment like that, but I wouldn't worry too much," astronomer Stephen Pompea said. "There is a slight chance it could repeat, like sunspot activity, a more common—whup! There it goes again. You seeing this? Kind of weird how it—okay, back on." Observatory personnel said they would give their full attention to investigating the phenomenon as soon as they figure out why last night's moon was blood red and took up half the sky.

http://www.theonion.com/content/news_briefs/sun_goes_out_for_a_few
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Fintan
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PostPosted: Sat May 16, 2009 2:11 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:


Snow in Saudi Arabia in May?

12 05 2009 - From the Saudi Gazette

In one of the rare occasions, Saudis enjoy the snowfall in Al-Baha city south-west of Riyadh, Tuesday. Torrential rains pouring down on Al-Baha accompanied by gusty winds were accompanied by snow capping the mountains and covering the valley areas and the forests of Al-Zaraeb and Khayrah.

The last report we had like this in mid January said that the snow and cold was the “worst in 30 years“. In January, snow isn’t unexpected in Saudi Arabia, it has happened before. But in May?

While the report says “snow”, the possibility exists that it could also be small hail from thunderstorms. Looks like it is warming up fast though.
The forecast calls for 93 degrees. Just remember, weather is not climate.

http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/05/12/snow-in-saudi-arabia-in-may/


Quote:
The K7RA Solar Update

After weeks of little or no sunspots, it is nice to have something to report:
Following multiple false starts, quick-fading spots and knots of magnetic
activity that never progressed into actual darkened sunspots, new
sunspot group 1017 emerged on Wednesday, May 13.


The daily sunspot number was 12; the next day the size of the group
approximately doubled, raising the sunspot number to 18. This is a Solar
Cycle 24 sunspot group. A week ago, we expected active regions spotted
by the STEREO mission would emerge into sunspots over the weekend,
but like many others in the recent past, they faded away. The new
sunspot this week emerged a few days later.....

http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2009/05/15/10822/?nc=1


Some solar activity and a few sunspots have triggered a spate of
articles proclaiming that Solar Cycle 24 is underway. But the data
is far from convincing.

To butcher a phrase: One Sunspot does'nt make a Summer.

We are still at the lowest area of the sunspot curve --with the next year
looking like a continuation of lower solar activity; continued global
cooling; and a harsh '09 winter in prospect.

However the ocean currents may be altering to warm things up
but there's not moch strength in that trend as yet:


Quote:
La Niña fading, El Niño may soon return

13 05 2009

The newest Ocean SST map shows the La Nina conditions have gone
away and we are in slightly positive ENSO conditions.

Also interesting is that the negative PDO seems to be moving back to
neutral right now. The cool SST conditions off of Alaska (which has been
there for 3 years now) looks to be moderating as well.

From my perspective, the other interesting feature is how the recent La
Ninas have loaded up cool SSTs in the Pacific off south-east Asia which
will soon move into the Kuroshio currrent which will then flow across the
north Pacific.

The upper ocean heat content is signaling we are going to move rapidly
into El Nino conditions although most forecasts are calling for neutral
conditions.

Atmospheric Angular Momentum has really turned negative recently
(signaling La Nina), the Trade Winds have fallen off to nothing
(signaling El Nino).

So overall, the north Pacific is offically schizophrenic right now.

http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/05/13/la-nina-fading-el-nino-may-soon-return/


Quote:
Solar Cycle 24 set to be a quiet affair

Least active since 1928, experts predict
By Lester Haines - 11th May 2009 10:21 GMT

The Sun's "Solar Cycle 24", which kicked off back in December 2008,
will be "the weakest since 1928", according to an international panel of
experts.

The "nearly unanimous prediction", as New Scientist describes it, follows
a certain amount of hemming and hawing as to quite how much sunspot
activity we could expect in the run-up to the "solar maximum", now set
for May 2013.

The Sun's 11-year cycles end with a reversal of the star's magnetic field,
and are marked by the migration of sunspots to its equator, where they
fizzle out. The next cycle is heralded by a new "high-latitude" sunspot, at
around 25 to 30 degrees latitude, and whose magnetic polarity is the
reverse of those of the previous cycle.

However, the transition is not a cut-and-dried process. New Scientist
notes that while the experts had suggested the Sun "would probably hit
the lowest point in its activity in March 2008 before ramping up to a new
cycle that would reach its maximum in late 2011 or mid-2012", it refused
to play ball and "entered an unexpectedly long lull in activity with few new
sunspots".

The Sun is, though, now displaying a couple of new active regions (seen
at top left of pic) captured last week by of NASA's twin Solar TErrestrial
RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft .

Panel chairman Doug Biesecker, of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration Space Weather Prediction Center, declared: "There's a lot
of indicators that Cycle 24 is ready to burst out."

When it does "burst out", the Sun will eventually reach a predicted solar
maximum of 90 sunspots per day, which is "below average for solar
cycles, making the coming peak the weakest since 1928, when an
average of 78 sunspots was seen daily".

That doesn't necessarily mean Earth will be spared the "extreme storms
that could knock out power grids and space satellites". Beisecker hedged:
"As hard as it is to predict sunspot number, it's even harder to predict the
actual level of solar activity that responds to those sunspots. If there are
fewer storms, they could still be just as intense."

Not all the experts are agreed that Cycle 24 will be a moderate affair.
Panel member Mausumi Dikpati of the High Altitude Observatory in
Boulder, Colorado, and colleagues have "developed a solar model that
predicts a bumper crop of sunspots and a cycle that is 30 to 50 per cent
stronger than ... Cycle 23".

She told New Scientist: "It's still in a quiet period. As soon as it takes off
it could be a completely different story."

http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/05/11/cycle_24_prediction/


Quote:
Coal, Electric Industries Big
Winners in Climate Bill Deal


Regional Interests Watering Down Bill Aimed
at Curbing Global Climate Change Effects


By Mike Lillis 5/15/09 1:29 PM

Even as House Democrats are celebrating their deal with
conservative-leaning colleagues on climate change legislation, the
real winners under the compromise have been the coal, electric and
auto industries, who are largely the source of the nation’s carbon
emissions to begin with.


Details of the compromise are still emerging, but already the chief
sponsors of the measure — Reps. Henry Waxman (D-Calif.) and Edward
Markey (D-Mass.) — have been forced to lower carbon-reduction targets,
cut renewable fuel standards and dole out billions of dollars in benefits to
the nation’s largest polluting industries.

Many environmentalists say the compromise comes at the too-high cost
of undermining the bill’s very purpose, which is to slash emissions
dramatically enough to prevent a warming planet from heating further.
Some are asking Democrats either to bolster the environmental
protections or to scrap the proposal altogether......

http://washingtonindependent.com/43264/coal-electric-industries-big-winners-in-climate-bill-deal


Quote:
Uh, oh. 50 year old ocean thermohaline model
sinking fast, climate models may be disrupted


15 05 2009

Science Daily is reporting that just because they teach you something in
graduate school doesn’t make it right.


A 50 year old model of global thermohaline circulation that predicts a
deep Atlantic counter current below the Gulf Stream is now formally
called into question by an armada of subsurface RAFOS floats drifting 700
– 1500m deep. Nearly 80% of the RAFOS floats escaped the Deep
Western Boundary Current (DWBC), drifting into the open ocean.

This confirms suspicions that have been around since the 1990’s, and
likely plays havoc with global models of climate change. The findings by
Drs. Amy Bower of Wood’s Hole and Susan Lozier of Duke University et
al. are published in a forthcoming issue of Nature....

http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/05/15/uh-oh-50-year-old-ocean-thermohaline-model-sinking-fast-climate-models-may-be-disrupted/

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Fintan
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Joined: 18 Jan 2006
Posts: 8182

PostPosted: Sun May 17, 2009 4:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Dude, Where's My Global Warming?

It's freezing hard from Yorkton in Saskatchewan
all the way down to South Dakota right now......

Quote:


Yorkton Digging Out From Huge Snowfall
Residents trade umbrellas for snow shovels


By Brendan Wagner - May 15, 2009

The Yorkton area is a winter wonderland after a snowstorm blanketed the
city overnight.

It's an awful sight for many, but especially golfers and golf course
operators.

"We got about a foot of snow and we got some probably two-foot drifts
across the golf course here," says Leo Skaluba, the superintendent of
Deer Park Golf Course in Yorkton. "We'll probably be closed for two or
three days now."

But he adds it's just another lousy day in a spring filled with them.

"We just haven't had near enough nice days to bring the people out,"
Skaluba says.

On the bright side, he says the moisture will put the course in excellent
shape -- as long as the warm weather finally shows up.

Tom Abrametz farms just north of Yorkton and says this type of thing
happens every couple of decades.

"You'd have to go back to May of '83 that we had around the 15th,
a huge snowstorm
," he says. "I was just talking to my mother-in-law
this morning. She said the long weekend in May of '65 was a very bad
storm. And it was a short summer because there was another bad
storm on Sept. 15.
"

The heavy, wet snow brought down tree branches onto power lines,
causing numerous power outages in and around the city.

http://www.newstalk980.com/story/20090515/16490

This is NOT snow, it's just frozen CO2.

We woke up to alot of snow this morning. We weren't even under a
heavy snowfall warning!!!! I bet we didn't get this much snow in
December. There will be lots of water in the hay meadow now!!!
There will be alot of stuck tractors this spring trying to put the crop in.
We have not started seeding yet and this will take awhile to dry out....




Quote:
Now THAT’S a commencement speech

This speech at the 22nd Annual UVU Symposium on Environmental Ethics,
held April 1st and 2nd at Utah Valley University is one of the most
sensible and pragmatic ones I have ever read. It would have made a
better commencement speech in my view. Some in the crowd must have
been ready to bust. But let us hope some of the soon-to-be graduates
took away something from this other than a desire to pummel the
speaker because it went against what they “know”.

This is well worth the read. – Anthony

Energy Myths and Realities

Keith O. Rattie
Chairman, President and CEO
Questar Corporation
Utah Valley University

Good morning, everyone. I‟m honored to join you today.

Thirty-three years ago I was where you are today, about to graduate
(with a degree in electrical engineering), trying to decide what to do with
my career. I chose to go to work for an energy company – Chevron – on
what turned out to be a false premise: I believed that by the time I
reached the age I am today that America and the world would no longer
be running on fossil fuels. Chevron was pouring money into alternatives –
and they had lots of money and the incentive to find alternatives – and I
wanted to be part of the transition.

Fast forward 33 years. Today, you students are being told that before you
reach my age America and the world must stop using fossil fuels.

I‟m going to try to do something that seems impossible these days – and
that‟s have an honest conversation about energy policy, global warming
and what proposed „cap and trade‟ regulation means for you, the
generation that will have to live with the consequences of the policy
choices we make. My goal is to inform you with easily verifiable facts –
not hype and propaganda – and to appeal to your common sense......

READ ON: http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/05/14/now-thats-a-commencement-speech/

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Jimbo



Joined: 11 Mar 2008
Posts: 490

PostPosted: Sun May 17, 2009 5:42 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

With the hole in the ozone threat around since the late 70s I thought that by now somewhere in the world seas had would have actually encroached on the land. So far, I believe, nowhere on Earth has the sea level risen. Miami Beach, New York and even Bangladesh are still here and above sea level. And what has held the seas at bay, what with melting glaciers and diminishing ice caps: disruptions to the Earth's gravity field,"

Now, I honestly don't know diddly about "climate change," etc., but I had always thought gravity was a constant force and now I read gravity is being disrupted and saving New York. Is it me or does this not make sense to you as well?

Quote:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8050094.stm

BBC NEWS Thursday, 14 May

Ice sheet melt threat reassessed
By Mark Kinver
Science and environment reporter, BBC News

The collapse of a major polar ice sheet will not raise global sea levels as much as previous projections suggest, a team of scientists has calculated.

Writing in Science, the researchers said that the demise of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) would result in a sea level rise of 3.3m (10 ft).

Previous estimates had forecast a rise in the region of five to six metres.

However, they added, the rise would still pose a serious threat to major coastal cities, such as New York.

"Sea level rise is considered to be the one of the most serious consequence of climate change," lead author Jonathan Bamber told the Science podcast.

"A sea level rise of just 1.5m would displace 17 million people in Bangladesh alone," he added.

"So it is of the utmost importance to understand the potential threats to coastlines and people living in coastal areas."

Threat reassessed

Professor Bamber, from the University of Bristol's Glaciology Centre, said that the WAIS posed "potentially one of the most serious threats".

The world has three ice sheets, Greenland, East Antarctica and West Antarctica, but it is the latter that is considered most vulnerable to climatic shifts.

"It has been hypothesised for more than 30 years now that the WAIS is inherently unstable," he explained.

"This instability means that the ice sheet could potentially rapidly collapse or rapidly put a lot of ice into the oceans."

When the idea first emerged in the late 1970s, it was estimated that global sea level would rise by five metres if the WAIS collapsed.

Current projections suggest that a complete collapse of WAIS would result in an increase of up to six metres.

But Professor Bamber said that no-one had revisited the calculation, despite new data sets becoming available, and scientists developing a better understanding of the dynamics in the vast ice sheets.

The original estimates were based on "very basic ice thickness data", he explained.

"Ice thickness data gives you information about the depth of the bedrock underneath the ice sheet.

"Over the past 30 years, we have acquired much more ice thickness data over the whole of Antarctica, particularly over West Antarctica.

"We also have much better surface topography. Those two data sets are critical in determining two things."

The first was knowing the volume of ice that could contribute to sea level rise, and the second was a better understanding of the proportion of WAIS that was potentially susceptible to this instability.

Instead of assuming that the entire WAIS would collapse, causing sea level to rise by up to six metres, Professor Bamber and colleagues used models based on glaciological theory to simulate how the 2.2 million-cubic-km ice sheet would respond.

"Our reassessment of West Antarctica's contribution to sea level rise if the ice sheet was to collapse is about 3.3 metres," he said.

"That is about half of the value that has been quoted up until now."

The team's study also calculated what regions were likely to experience the biggest increases in sea level.

"Sea level rise is not uniform across the world's oceans, partly as a result of disruptions to the Earth's gravity field," explained Professor Bamber.

"It turns out that the maximum increase in sea level rise is centred at a latitude of about 40 degrees along the Atlantic and Pacific seaboards of North America."

This would include cities such as San Francisco and New York.

These areas could expect increases of one-and-a-quarter times the global average, the team estimated.

In other words, if the global average was one metre, then places like New York could expect to see a rise of 1.25m.

Responding to Professor Bamber's paper in Science, British Antarctic Survey science leader Dr David Vaughan described the findings as "quite sound".

"But for me, the most crucial question is not solely about the total amount of ice in West Antarctica, because that might take several centuries to be lost to the ocean," he told BBC News.

"The crucial question is how much ice could be lost in 100-200 years; that's the sea level rise we have to understand and plan for.

"Even with this new assessment the loss of a fraction of WAIS over those timescales would have serious consequences and costs that we've only really just begun to understand."
Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/science/nature/8050094.stm

Published: 2009/05/14 21:08:07 GMT

© BBC MMIX
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Fintan
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PostPosted: Wed Oct 07, 2009 6:33 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:


The Beautiful Truth Show - 7th October, 2009

LISTEN:
Broadband Mp3 Audio
http://BreakForNews.com/audio/BeautifulTruth-09-10-07-dsl.mp3
Click to Play or Right-Click to 'Save As' and Download.

Dialup Mp3 Audio
http://BreakForNews.com/audio/BeautifulTruth-09-10-07-dialup.mp3
Click to Play or Right-Click to 'Save As' and Download.

REFERENCES

Quote:
World's climate could cool first, warm later
04 September 2009 by Fred Pearce, Geneva

Forecasts of climate change are about to go seriously out of kilter. One of the world's top climate modellers said Thursday we could be about to enter one or even two decades during which temperatures cool.....


A Skeptical Take on Global Warming


Weak El Niño could lead to U.S. Northeast Coldest Winter in a Decade


NASA: Cosmic rays up 19% since last peak
– new record high could lead to cooling



The 2007-2008 Global Cooling Event: Evidence for Clouds as the Cause


The ‘Hockey Stick’ IS Dead
Over the next nine years, at least one paper per year appeared in prominent journals using Briffa's Yamal composite to support a hockey stick-like result. The IPCC relied on these studies to defend the Hockey Stick view, and since it had appointed Briffa himself to be the IPCC Lead Author for this topic, there was no chance it would question the Yamal data......
http://climateresearchnews.com/2009/09/the-hockey-stick-is-dead/


Carbon Credit Market Imploding:
CCX now 10 cents a tonne




Enjoy global warming while it lasts


The Money and Connections Behind Al Gore’s Carbon Crusade
http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=22663


YAD06 – the Most Influential Tree in the World



Leading UK Climate Scientists Must Explain or Resign


United Nations Pulls Hockey Stick from Climate Report


Climate Alarmism on the Hot Seat
http://masterresource.org/?p=4545


CRU Refuses Data Once Again
http://www.climateaudit.org/?p=6623


Is the Climate Science Debate Over? No, It’s Just Getting
Very, Very Interesting (with welcome news for mankind)
http://masterresource.org/?p=3847


World leaders kick climate policy into the long grass


Will the Pentagon Fight Global Warming?
http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=33152


Small solar activity fluctuations amplify to larger climate influences



http://icecap.us/images/uploads/NAO.jpg
http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/NAO/




http://www.biocab.org/Cosmic_Rays_Graph.html#anchor_49


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Lord Carpainter



Joined: 15 Sep 2007
Posts: 268
Location: Canada

PostPosted: Wed Oct 07, 2009 6:51 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

why cant they just use haarp weather control technology or scalar to heat the earth?
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Rick Dagless



Joined: 11 Apr 2008
Posts: 104

PostPosted: Thu Oct 08, 2009 12:29 am    Post subject: Has anyone posted this yet? Reply with quote

The Mystery of Global Warming's Missing Heat

Quote:

NPR

March 19, 2008

Some 3,000 scientific robots that are plying the ocean have sent home a puzzling message. These diving instruments suggest that the oceans have not warmed up at all over the past four or five years. That could mean global warming has taken a breather. Or it could mean scientists aren't quite understanding what their robots are telling them.

This is puzzling in part because here on the surface of the Earth, the years since 2003 have been some of the hottest on record. But Josh Willis at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory says the oceans are what really matter when it comes to global warming.

In fact, 80 percent to 90 percent of global warming involves heating up ocean waters. They hold much more heat than the atmosphere can. So Willis has been studying the ocean with a fleet of robotic instruments called the Argo system. The buoys can dive 3,000 feet down and measure ocean temperature. Since the system was fully deployed in 2003, it has recorded no warming of the global oceans.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=88520025
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MichaelC



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Posts: 2229

PostPosted: Thu Oct 08, 2009 4:34 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Great audio Fintan, and encouraging news.

Dare we hope therefore that other super megafrauds - built on nothing but lies and fear -will also crumble?

We can look for the collapse of such horrors as: "HIV/AID$" Inc. , & the MIC?

Perhaps the Truth will actually out one day.
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LelaBear



Joined: 20 Oct 2008
Posts: 102
Location: Austin, TX

PostPosted: Thu Oct 08, 2009 8:06 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ah, Fintan, you done it again, laddie, great audio, thanks for putting it together and confirming my suspicions. I was fascinated by the correlation between cosmic rays and low level cloud formation, never heard that one before, I'll be keeping an eye on that phenomenon.

Here in Austin we've been under a cloud blanket for over a week...pretty unseasonal. Of course, after the summer from hell with 73 days in a row above 100 degrees, we're not complaining! But the switch to autumn weather was so quick it was rather alarming, usually we have 'Indian summers' that last well into October.

I agree that we'd all better get braced for a wicked winter cause it does appear that the sun is just not going to cooperate with the Global Warmning agenda~~~

http://www.n3kl.com/sun/images/noaa_xrays.gif?

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MichaelC



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PostPosted: Thu Oct 08, 2009 2:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The NWO criminals - not to be undone - have already updated their tired refrain from 'global warming' to 'climate change'.
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Fintan
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PostPosted: Thu Oct 08, 2009 3:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
LelaBear:
Of course, after the summer from hell with 73 days
in a row above 100 degrees, we're not complaining!

Riiiight. I don't know if this explains your temperatures, but in general
it seems that a side effect of the current jet stream and ocean current
alignments is that air circulation is somewhat restricted so that areas closer to the tropics are showing increased temperatures --even as
areas in the northern temperate zones are dipping cooler.

Quote:
MichaelC:
Dare we hope therefore that other super megafrauds - built on nothing
but lies and fear -will also crumble? We can look for the collapse of such
horrors as: "HIV/AID$" Inc. , & the MIC?

The realization that science has been hijacked will definitely has good
knock on efects, though AID$ is very deeply entrenched and will be slow
to lose ground (although alternative views are now well established).

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PostPosted: Thu Oct 08, 2009 3:30 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

It's an ironic fact that you aren't hearing in the Western media
about the latest findings confirming the role of the Sun and cosmic
rays in cloud formation. But that news WAS carried yesterday by
the Iranian Fars News!

Try Google News for the breaking development: "National Space Institute"

The only search result is the Iranian one:

Quote:
Sun and Cosmic Rays Drove Global
Warming, Researchers Confirm


TEHRAN (FNA)- New research by the National Space Institute in the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) validated 13 years of discoveries that point to a key role for cosmic rays in climate change.

Billions of tons of water droplets vanish from the atmosphere in events that reveal in detail how the Sun and the stars control our everyday clouds.

DTU Researchers have traced the consequences of eruptions on the Sun that screen the Earth from some of the cosmic rays - the energetic particles raining down on our planet from exploded stars.

"The Sun makes fantastic natural experiments that allow us to test our ideas about its effects on the climate," lead author of a report newly published in Geophysical Research Letters Prof. Henrik Svensmark said.

When solar explosions interfere with the cosmic rays there is a temporary shortage of small aerosols, chemical specks in the air that normally grow until water vapor can condense on them, so seeding the liquid water droplets of low-level clouds.

Because of the shortage, clouds over the ocean can lose as much as 7 per cent of their liquid water within seven or eight days of the cosmic-ray minimum.

"A link between the Sun, cosmic rays, aerosols, and liquid-water clouds appears to exist on a global scale," the report concludes.

This research, to which Torsten Bondo and Jacob Svensmark contributed, validates 13 years of discoveries that point to a key role for cosmic rays in climate change.


In particular, it connects observable variations in the world's cloudiness to laboratory experiments in Copenhagen showing how cosmic rays help to make the all-important aerosols.

Other investigators have reported difficulty in finding significant effects of the solar eruptions on clouds, and Henrik Svensmark understands their problem.

"It's like trying to see tigers hidden in the jungle, because clouds change a lot from day to day whatever the cosmic rays are doing," he says.

The first task for a successful hunt was to work out when "tigers" were most likely to show themselves, by identifying the most promising instances of sudden drops in the count of cosmic rays, called Forbush decreases.

Previous research in Copenhagen predicted that the effects should be most notice-able in the lowest 3000 meters of the atmosphere. The team identified 26 Forbush decreases since 1987 that caused the biggest reductions in cosmic rays at low altitudes, and set about looking for the consequences.

The first global impact of the shortage of cosmic rays is a subtle change in the color of sunlight, as seen by ground stations of the aerosol robotic network AERONET.

By analyzing its records during and after the reductions in cosmic rays, the DTU team found that violet light from the Sun looked brighter than usual. A shortage of small aerosols, which normally scatter violet light as it passes through the air, was the most likely reason. The color change was greatest about five days after the minimum counts of cosmic rays.

Henrik Svensmark and his team were not surprised by it, because the immediate action of cosmic rays, seen in laboratory experiments, creates micro-clusters of sulphuric acid and water molecules that are too small to affect the AERONET observations.

Only when they have spent a few days growing in size should they begin to show up, or else be noticeable by their absence. The evidence from the aftermath of the Forbush decreases, as scrutinized by the Danish team, gives aerosol experts valuable information about the formation and fate of small aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

Although capable of affecting sunlight after five days, the growing aerosols would not yet be large enough to collect water droplets. The full impact on clouds only becomes evident two or three days later.

It takes the form of a loss of low-altitude clouds, because of the earlier loss of small aerosols that would normally have grown into "cloud condensation nuclei" capable of seeding the clouds.

"Then it's like noticing bare patches in a field, where a farmer forgot to sow the seeds," Svensmark explains. "Three independent sets of satellite observations all tell a similar story of clouds disappearing, about a week after the minimum of cosmic rays."

Averaging satellite data on the liquid-water content of clouds over the oceans, for the five strongest Forbush decreases from 2001 to 2005, the DTU team found a 7 per cent decrease, as mentioned earlier.

That translates into 3 billion tons of liquid water vanishing from the sky.
The water remains the-re in vapor form, but unlike cloud droplets it does not get in the way of sunlight trying to warm the ocean. After the same five Forbush decreases, satellites measuring the extent of liquid-water clouds revealed an average reduction of 4 per cent. Other satellites showed a similar 5 per cent reduction in clouds below 3200 meters over the ocean.

"The effect of the solar explosions on the Earth's cloudiness is huge," Henrik Svensmark comments.

"A loss of clouds of 4 or 5 per cent may not sound very much, but it briefly increases the sunlight reaching the oceans by about 2 watt per square meter, and that's equivalent to all the global warming during the 20th Century."

The Forbush decreases are too short-lived to have a lasting effect on the climate, but they dramatize the mechanism that works more patiently during the 11-year solar cycle.

When the Sun becomes more active, the decline in low-altitude cosmic radiation is greater than that seen in most Forbush events and the loss of low cloud cover persists for long enough to warm the world.

That explains, according to the DTU team, the alternations of warming and cooling seen in the lower atmosphere and in the oceans during solar cycles.

The director of the Danish National Space Institute, DTU, Eigil Friis-Christensen, was co-author with Svensmark of an early report on the effect of cosmic rays on cloud cover, back in 1996.

Commenting on the latest paper he said, "The evidence has piled up, first for the link between cosmic rays and low-level clouds and then, by experiment and observation, for the mechanism involving aerosols. All these consistent scientific results illustrate that the current climate models used to predict future climate are lacking important parts of the physics".

http://english.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8807151416

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